Consequences of Non-Intervention for Infectious Disease in African Great Apes
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{"title"=>"Consequences of non-intervention for infectious disease in African great apes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sadie J.", "last_name"=>"Ryan", "scopus_author_id"=>"10039124600"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter D.", "last_name"=>"Walsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"8682521600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84055216958", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029030", "pui"=>"363132835", "pmid"=>"22216162", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84055216958", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"e59438ff-a0a1-3517-bb83-c1daa3636968", "abstract"=>"Infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to African apes. Both \"naturally\" occurring pathogens, such as Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. While awareness of the threat has increased, interventions such as vaccination and treatment remain controversial. Here we explore both the risk of disease to African apes, and the status of potential responses. Through synthesis of published data, we summarize prior disease impact on African apes. We then use a simple demographic model to illustrate the resilience of a well-known gorilla population to disease, modeled on prior documented outbreaks. We found that the predicted recovery time for this specific gorilla population from a single outbreak ranged from 5 years for a low mortality (4%) respiratory outbreak, to 131 years for an Ebola outbreak that killed 96% of the population. This shows that mortality rates comparable to those recently reported for disease outbreaks in wild populations are not sustainable. This is particularly troubling given the rising pathogen risk created by increasing habituation of wild apes for tourism, and the growth of human populations surrounding protected areas. We assess potential future disease spillover risk in terms of vaccination rates amongst humans that may come into contact with wild apes, and the availability of vaccines against potentially threatening diseases. We discuss and evaluate non-interventionist responses such as limiting tourist access to apes, community health programs, and safety, logistic, and cost issues that constrain the potential of vaccination.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/consequences-nonintervention-infectious-disease-african-great-apes-5", "reader_count"=>138, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>5, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699083"], "description"=>"<p>Five outbreaks from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029030#pone-0029030-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>, (Respiratory (Gombe, 2000), Flu-like (Mahale, 1993), Flu-like (Bossou 2003), STLV or Strep (Tai 1999), Ebola (Lossi, 2003–2004)) are used to demonstrate the recovery time to initial population size (dashed line), for a given outbreak mortality.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["curves", "hypothetical", "outbreak", "scenarios", "gorilla"], "article_id"=>369472, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Sadie J. Ryan", "Peter D. Walsh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029030.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recovery_curves_for_hypothetical_outbreak_scenarios_within_a_gorilla_population_/369472", "title"=>"Recovery curves for hypothetical outbreak scenarios within a gorilla population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:29:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699211"], "description"=>"a<p>Coverage reported in 2005 European survey <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029030#pone.0029030-Infuso1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>, as not reported in WHO statistics.</p><p>Cases reported for human diseases and vaccination coverage (%) in exemplar great ape range countries (Congo, Cote d'Ivore, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Central African Republic (CAR), Gabon and Uganda) and a tourist country (United Kingdom (UK)). MCV is a Measles Containing Vaccine, including MMR (Mumps Measles Rubella); DPT1/DPT3 are the first and third Diptheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccinations given, so the rate at which the third is given is likely best representation of coverage. Similarly for the Polio vaccine, Pol3 is the third in a series given. For Tetanus, the TT2 is the second of five in a series, and TT2 confers up to 5 years of expected protection, and is usually given to pregnant mothers to prevent neonatal tetanus. The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) attenuated bovine tuberculosis strain, is thought to be around 80% effective for 15 years, but this is highly dependent on geography and presence of strain types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reported", "denoted"], "article_id"=>369603, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Sadie J. Ryan", "Peter D. Walsh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029030.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vaccination_coverage_and_cases_reported_by_country_not_reported_denoted_nr_/369603", "title"=>"Vaccination coverage (%) and (cases) reported by country (not reported denoted nr).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:29:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699237"], "description"=>"<p>Vaccinations available for wild ape populations, by <b>(T)</b><b>transmission</b> mode (R = Respiratory, B = Bite, F = Fecal, V = Vectorborne, W = Wound, S = Sexual), whether the pathogen has been explicitly identified in <b>(WA)</b><b>wild apes</b> (*), the disease <b>(R)</b><b>reservoir</b>, the <b>(ID)</b><b>immunity duration</b> (Longterm (L), Shortterm (S) or Unknown (U)) of the vaccination, and <b>(LS)</b><b>licensing status</b>, as described in the methods (L = Licensed, E = Early experimental, A = Advanced experimental, * = Vaccine for human strain only).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ape"], "article_id"=>369643, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Sadie J. Ryan", "Peter D. Walsh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029030.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vaccinations_available_for_wild_ape_populations_/369643", "title"=>"Vaccinations available for wild ape populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699190"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of sixteen previously published outbreaks for which the mortality impact, the percentage mortality in the group, α, is given, or was possible to estimate. Note that, for many of the outbreaks, the pathogen was not explicitly identified.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outbreaks", "african", "published", "estimates"], "article_id"=>369583, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Sadie J. Ryan", "Peter D. Walsh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029030.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sixteen_previous_disease_outbreaks_in_African_great_apes_for_which_published_estimates_of_mortality_are_available_/369583", "title"=>"Sixteen previous disease outbreaks in African great apes, for which published estimates of mortality are available.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:29:49"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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Net::HTTPBadRequest

Source
CrossRef
Time
2020-07-24 10:18:57 UTC
Target URL
http://doi.crossref.org/servlet/getForwardLinks?usr=plos&pwd=Sp5BS5-wNH6_jJ&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0029030
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'