New Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous Demonstrate Extensive Ichthyosaur Survival across the Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary
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{"title"=>"New ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs from the European lower cretaceous demonstrate extensive ichthyosaur survival across the jurassic-cretaceous boundary", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Valentin", "last_name"=>"Fischer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36660885700"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael W.", "last_name"=>"Maisch", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005547025"}, {"first_name"=>"Darren", "last_name"=>"Naish", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602870362"}, {"first_name"=>"Ralf", "last_name"=>"Kosma", "scopus_author_id"=>"35069897000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeff", "last_name"=>"Liston", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004461104"}, {"first_name"=>"Ulrich", "last_name"=>"Joger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603110757"}, {"first_name"=>"Fritz J.", "last_name"=>"Krüger", "scopus_author_id"=>"35192052700"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith Pardo", "last_name"=>"Pérez", "scopus_author_id"=>"54882234700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica", "last_name"=>"Tainsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"54881888900"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert M.", "last_name"=>"Appleby", "scopus_author_id"=>"54882011900"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364029117", "sgr"=>"84855319043", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22235274", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855319043", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029234", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"8b8c3a8d-cd01-3a9f-b022-0036b7d474f2", "abstract"=>"<sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Ichthyosauria is a diverse clade of marine amniotes that spanned most of the Mesozoic. Until recently, most authors interpreted the fossil record as showing that three major extinction events affected this group during its history: one during the latest Triassic, one at the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary (JCB), and one (resulting in total extinction) at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. The JCB was believed to eradicate most of the peculiar morphotypes found in the Late Jurassic, in favor of apparently less specialized forms in the Cretaceous. However, the record of ichthyosaurs from the Berriasian–Barremian interval is extremely limited, and the effects of the end-Jurassic extinction event on ichthyosaurs remains poorly understood.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>Based on new material from the Hauterivian of England and Germany and on abundant material from the Cambridge Greensand Formation, we name a new ophthalmosaurid, <italic>Acamptonectes densus</italic> gen. et sp. nov. This taxon shares numerous features with <italic>Ophthalmosaurus</italic>, a genus now restricted to the Callovian–Berriasian interval. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Ophthalmosauridae diverged early in its history into two markedly distinct clades, Ophthalmosaurinae and Platypterygiinae, both of which cross the JCB and persist to the late Albian at least. To evaluate the effect of the JCB extinction event on ichthyosaurs, we calculated cladogenesis, extinction, and survival rates for each stage of the Oxfordian–Barremian interval, under different scenarios. The extinction rate during the JCB never surpasses the background extinction rate for the Oxfordian–Barremian interval and the JCB records one of the highest survival rates of the interval.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusions/Significance</title> <p>There is currently no evidence that ichthyosaurs were affected by the JCB extinction event, in contrast to many other marine groups. Ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs remained diverse from their rapid radiation in the Middle Jurassic to their total extinction at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous.</p> </sec>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-ophthalmosaurid-ichthyosaurs-european-lower-cretaceous-demonstrate-extensive-ichthyosaur-surviva", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354130", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354206", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354222", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354278"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Ichthyosauria is a diverse clade of marine amniotes that spanned most of the Mesozoic. Until recently, most authors interpreted the fossil record as showing that three major extinction events affected this group during its history: one during the latest Triassic, one at the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary (JCB), and one (resulting in total extinction) at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. The JCB was believed to eradicate most of the peculiar morphotypes found in the Late Jurassic, in favor of apparently less specialized forms in the Cretaceous. However, the record of ichthyosaurs from the Berriasian–Barremian interval is extremely limited, and the effects of the end-Jurassic extinction event on ichthyosaurs remains poorly understood.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Based on new material from the Hauterivian of England and Germany and on abundant material from the Cambridge Greensand Formation, we name a new ophthalmosaurid, <em>Acamptonectes densus</em> gen. et sp. nov. This taxon shares numerous features with <em>Ophthalmosaurus</em>, a genus now restricted to the Callovian–Berriasian interval. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Ophthalmosauridae diverged early in its history into two markedly distinct clades, Ophthalmosaurinae and Platypterygiinae, both of which cross the JCB and persist to the late Albian at least. To evaluate the effect of the JCB extinction event on ichthyosaurs, we calculated cladogenesis, extinction, and survival rates for each stage of the Oxfordian–Barremian interval, under different scenarios. The extinction rate during the JCB never surpasses the background extinction rate for the Oxfordian–Barremian interval and the JCB records one of the highest survival rates of the interval.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>There is currently no evidence that ichthyosaurs were affected by the JCB extinction event, in contrast to many other marine groups. Ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs remained diverse from their rapid radiation in the Middle Jurassic to their total extinction at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ophthalmosaurid", "ichthyosaurs", "european", "cretaceous", "ichthyosaur"], "article_id"=>129984, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/New_Ophthalmosaurid_Ichthyosaurs_from_the_European_Lower_Cretaceous_Demonstrate_Extensive_Ichthyosaur_Survival_across_the_Jurassic_Cretaceous_Boundary/129984", "title"=>"New Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous Demonstrate Extensive Ichthyosaur Survival across the Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:46:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698061"], "description"=>"<p>A–C: <i>A. densus</i> (GLAHM 132588, holotype), in posterior view (A,B) and anterior view (C). D,E: <i>A. densus</i> (SNHM1284-R), in posterior view. F: <i>Platypterygius australis</i> (QMF14339), in posterior view redrawn from Kear <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Kear1\" target=\"_blank\">[58]</a>. G: <i>Sveltonectes insolitus</i> (IRSNB R269, holotype), in posterior view, from Fischer et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Fischer2\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>. H: <i>Ophthalmosaurus icenicus</i> (NHMUK R4522, mirrored), in posterior view, redrawn from Kirton <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Kirton1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>. I: <i>Ophthalmosaurus icenicus</i> (NHMUK R2161), in posterior view, redrawn from Andrews <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Andrews2\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>. Abbreviations: amp: ampulla; avsc: impression of the anterior vertical semicircular canal; hsc: impression of the horizontal semicircular canal; M.a.m.e. facet: facet for attachment of musculus adductor mandibulae externus; sac: sacculus; ut: utriculus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prootic", "compared"], "article_id"=>368452, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_prootic_of_Acamptonectes_densus_compared_to_that_of_other_ophthalmosaurids_/368452", "title"=>"Left prootic of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i> compared to that of other ophthalmosaurids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:20:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698193"], "description"=>"<p>A: <i>A. densus</i> (GLAHM 132588, holotype), in posterolateral view showing the lateral ridge. B,C: <i>A. densus</i> (SNHM1284-R), in ventral view showing the peculiar thickened lateral foot. D,E: <i>A. densus</i> (GLAHM 132588, holotype), in otic (anteromedial) view. F,G: <i>A. densus</i> (SNHM1284-R), in otic view. H: <i>Ophthalmosaurus icenicus</i> (NHMUK R4523), in otic view, redrawn from Kirton <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Kirton1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>. I: <i>Platypterygius australis</i> (AM F98273), in otic view, redrawn from Kear <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Kear1\" target=\"_blank\">[58]</a>. J: <i>Mollesaurus periallus</i> (MOZ 2282, holotype), in otic view, redrawn from Fernández <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Fernndez3\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a>. Abbreviations: amp: ampulla; bof: basioccipital facet; hsc: impression of the horizontal semicircular canal; pvsc: impression of the posterior vertical semicircular canal; sac: sacculus; ut: utriculus; vag: vagus foramen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["opisthotics", "compared"], "article_id"=>368586, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Right_opisthotics_of_Acamptonectes_densus_compared_to_that_of_other_ophthalmosaurids_/368586", "title"=>"Right opisthotics of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i> compared to that of other ophthalmosaurids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:23:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698456"], "description"=>"<p>Both specimens have incomplete vertebral series and the centra were therefore superposed manually in each region, using the centrum shape and relative position of the apophyses. Each obvious gap in the vertebral column is represented by a single void in the series of SNHM1284-R. The x-axis refers to the centrum count, not its actual position within the vertebral column. The regionalization of the vertebral column is quite weak, in between that of <i>Sveltonectes insolitus </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Fischer2\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a> and <i>Ophthalmosaurus icenicus </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#pone.0029234-Massare1\" target=\"_blank\">[69]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vertebral"], "article_id"=>368843, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regionalization_of_the_vertebral_column_in_Acamptonectes_densus_/368843", "title"=>"Regionalization of the vertebral column in <i>Acamptonectes densus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:27:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697367"], "description"=>"<p>Skull and partial cervical region of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i> (SNHM1284-R).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cervical"], "article_id"=>367758, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_and_partial_cervical_region_of_Acamptonectes_densus_SNHM1284_R_/367758", "title"=>"Skull and partial cervical region of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i> (SNHM1284-R).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:09:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698342"], "description"=>"<p>A: anterior dorsal centrum and associated neural spine of SNHM1284-R, showing the large size of the neural spine with respect to the centrum height. B: series of posterior postflexural centra of SNHM1284-R showing their square shape (H/L≈1). C: series of posterior dorsal centra of GLAHM 132588 (holotype), showing the markedly curved profile of the posterolateral lamella. D: cross-section of a rib of NHMUK R11185 showing their robust morphology and the minute groove occurring on one side only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["axial", "skeleton"], "article_id"=>368729, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagnostic_features_of_the_axial_skeleton_of_Acamptonectes_densus_/368729", "title"=>"Diagnostic features of the axial skeleton of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:25:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699497"], "description"=>"<p>The features listed here are those not previously assigned to ontogeny: typical ontogenetic features (such as sandpaper-like texture on the humerus, the shape of the capitulum of the humerus, and the overall ‘fit’ of the basicranium and forefin bones) are discussed in the text. Potentially, the variations listed here could be interpreted as representing ontogenetic, phyletic, or intraspecific variation, given the differences in ontogenetic stage (subadult VS adult) and stratigraphic age (late Hauterivian VS basal Hauterivian) of the two specimens. Because we interpret both individuals as representatives of the same species, we propose that the morphological features listed here are within normal intraspecific variation and hence possibly of limited phylogenetic interest.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphological"], "article_id"=>369882, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variable_morphological_features_in_Acamptonectes_densus_/369882", "title"=>"Variable morphological features in <i>Acamptonectes densus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:44:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697901"], "description"=>"<p>A–F: SNHM1284-R, in posterior view (A,D), in dorsal view (B,E), and in ventral view (C,F). G–H: GLAHM132588 (holotype), in lateral view (G) and ventral view (H). Note the markedly concave extracondylar band that separates the condyle from the rest of the basioccipital and the bilobed median concavity for the foramen magnum. The arrow in E indicates the protruding anterior edge of the extracondylar area posterior to the depressed opisthotic facet. Abbreviations: eca: extracondylar area; exf: exoccipital facet; fm: median concavity for the foramen magnum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>368287, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basioccipital_of_Acamptonectes_densus_/368287", "title"=>"Basioccipital of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:18:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699187"], "description"=>"<p>A: the single most parsimonious tree (length = 101 steps; consistency index = 0.54; retention index = 0.66) in unambiguous optimization. Black circles represent non-homoplastic synapomorphies, open circles represent homoplastic synapomorphies, and numbers above and below circles represent character number and character state, respectively. Ophthalmosauridae rapidly separated in two markedly distinct clades: Ophthalmosaurinae and Platypterygiinae. B: stratigraphy-calibrated phylogeny and bremer support for each branch (white number in plain black circle). The black box represents the stratigraphic range of the species and the gray box expresses the additional range of the corresponding genus. Plurispecific genera (<i>Ophthalmosaurus</i> and <i>Platypterygius</i>, which may not be monophyletic, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Results</a>–Phylogeny) have their range indicated at the level of one of their species only (<i>O. icenicus</i> and <i>P. hercynicus</i>, respectively). Many genera and lineages cross the JCB, represented by the vertical orange line. Abbreviations: Aal: Aalenian; Baj: Bajocian; Bar: Barremian; Bat: Bathonian; Ber, Berriasian; Cal: Callovian; Cen: Cenomanian; Hau: Hauterivian; Het: Hettangian; Kim: Kimmeridgian; Nor: Norian; Oxf: Oxfordian; Pli: Pliensbachian; Rha: Rhaetian; Sin: Sinemurian; Tit: Tithonian.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>369568, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_of_Thunnosauria_/369568", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships of Thunnosauria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:39:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698740"], "description"=>"<p>A–D: right humerus of NBM1284-R, in dorsal view (A), proximal view (B), distal view (C), and posterior view (D). E,F: right humerus of GLAHM 132588 (holotype), in ventral view with the associated ulna (E) and in distal view (F). The arrow points at the concave and edge-like posterior surface of the ulna, diagnostic of ophthalmosaurine ophthalmosaurs. G: proximal phalange of GLAHM 132588 (holotype). Abbreviations: aae facet: facet for the anterior accessory element; dpc: deltopectoral crest; td: trochanter dorsalis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>369124, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forefin_of_Acamptonectes_densus_/369124", "title"=>"Forefin of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:32:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699545"], "description"=>"<p>Measurements up to 210 mm are recorded up to the nearest 0.05 mm using a plastic caliper. Measurements above 210 mm are recorded up to the nearest 1 mm using a meter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["holotype", "paratype"], "article_id"=>369924, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selected_measurements_of_the_holotype_GLAHM_132588_and_of_one_paratype_SNHM1284_R_of_Acamptonectes_densus_/369924", "title"=>"Selected measurements of the holotype (GLAHM 132588) and of one paratype (SNHM1284-R) of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:45:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699458"], "description"=>"<p><i>Acamptonectes densus</i> (GLAHM 132588, SNHM1284-R, NHMUK R11185), <i>Acamptonectes</i> sp. (CAMSM B57942), and cf. <i>Ophthalmosaurus</i> (LEICT G1.2001.016).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["taxonomic", "ophthalmosaurine", "ichthyosaurs", "discussed"], "article_id"=>369832, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratios_of_taxonomic_importance_of_the_ophthalmosaurine_ichthyosaurs_discussed_in_the_text_/369832", "title"=>"Ratios of taxonomic importance of the ophthalmosaurine ichthyosaurs discussed in the text.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:43:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698551"], "description"=>"<p>A: coracoids and scapulae of SNHM1284-R in ventral view. B: Outline of the cross-section of the scapula, showing its flattened shape. C: right scapula of GLAHM 132588 (holotype), in ventral view. D: lateral surface of the right coracoid of SNHM1284-R. E,F: comparison of the medial surface of the right scapula of SNMM1284-R (E) and of GLAHM 132588 (holotype; F).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["girdle"], "article_id"=>368942, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scapular_girdle_of_Acamptonectes_densus_/368942", "title"=>"Scapular girdle of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:29:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697533"], "description"=>"<p>A: articulated nasals in dorsal view. B: left nasal in lateral view. C: right supratemporal in dorsal view. D–F: supraoccipital magnified two times with respect to the other bones, in posterior view (D) and in left anterolateral (otic) view (E,F). Note the lateral wing of the nasal forming an overhang on the naris, the narial process of the nasal, the long and straight squamosal facet of the supratemporal, and the weakly arched shape of the supraoccipital. Abbreviations: avsc: impression of the anterior vertical semicircular canal; pvsc: impression of the posterior vertical semicircular canal; ut: utriculus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>367924, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_roof_of_Acamptonectes_densus_GLAHM_132588_holotype_/367924", "title"=>"Skull roof of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i> (GLAHM 132588, holotype).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:12:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697725"], "description"=>"<p>A–C: basisphenoid, in dorsal view (A), in lateral view (B), and in posterior view (C). The thick and claw-like shape of the basipterygoid process in lateral view in shown in B. Note the dorsal crest and the paired facialis (VII) nerve foramen. D,E: left exoccipital, in medial view (D) and ventral view (E). The arrow indicates a notch that matches a small bump on the dorsal surface of the basioccipital, suggesting a close fit of these bones (and therefore a thin cartilage layer) that we interpret as indicator of a mature age. F,G: left stapes, in anteromedial view (F) and posterolateral view (G). Note the slenderness of the shaft compared to the occipital head. H,I: left quadrate, in lateral view (H) and posterior view (I). J,K: fragmentary tooth crowns magnified four times with respect to the other bones. Note the subtle striations and the constriction at the base of the crown in K. Abbreviations: bbf: facet for basioccipital and basisphenoid; bpp: basipterygoid process; hgf: hypoglossal foramina; sof: supraoccipital facet; VII: foramen for the facialis nerve (VII).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dentition"], "article_id"=>368117, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basicranium_quadrate_and_dentition_of_Acamptonectes_densus_GLAHM_132588_holotype_/368117", "title"=>"Basicranium, quadrate, and dentition of <i>Acamptonectes densus</i> (GLAHM 132588, holotype).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:15:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698901"], "description"=>"<p>A–C: basioccipital (CAMSM B57962) in posterior view (A), dorsal view (B), and posteroventral view (C), showing the important extracondylar area (delimited by the broken line). The specimen is the only one of the Cambridge Greensand Formation to exhibit a bilobed concavity for the foramen magnum. D,E; basisphenoid (NHMUK R2341) in lateral (view (D) and posterior view (E), showing the facialis nerve foramen posterior to the basipterygoid process and the pentagonal posterior surface because of the dorsal crest that is characteristic for the genus. Abbreviation: bpp: basipterygoid process; eca: extracondylar area; fm: bilobed concavity for the foramen magnum; VII: foramen for the facialis nerve (VII).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["basisphenoid", "cambridge", "greensand"], "article_id"=>369273, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basioccipital_and_basisphenoid_of_Acamptonectes_sp_from_Cambridge_Greensand_Formation_/369273", "title"=>"Basioccipital and basisphenoid of <i>Acamptonectes</i> sp. from Cambridge Greensand Formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:34:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699345"], "description"=>"<p>A: survival (positive) and extinction (negative) rates in the conservative scenario, in which post-Jurassic occurrences of both <i>Ophthalmosaurus</i> and <i>Brachypterygius</i> are ignored. B: survival (positive) and extinction (negative) rates in the total evidence scenario. C: cladogenesis rate. Light color represents phylogenetic lineages and dark color represents genera. Rates for the JCB are colored in orange. The JCB records high survival rates and low to null extinction rates, suggesting that no extinction took place amongst ichthyosaurs at the end of the Jurassic. Abbreviations: Apt: Aptian; Bar: Barremian; Ber, Berriasian; Hau: Hauterivian; Kim: Kimmeridgian; Oxf: Oxfordian; Tit: Tithonian.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cladogenesis", "rates", "ophthalmosaurids"], "article_id"=>369722, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_extinction_and_cladogenesis_rates_of_ophthalmosaurids_for_each_boundary_of_the_Oxfordian_8211_Barremian_interval_/369722", "title"=>"Survival, extinction, and cladogenesis rates of ophthalmosaurids for each boundary of the Oxfordian–Barremian interval.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:42:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699029"], "description"=>"<p>A,B: basioccipital (LEICT G3.2001.001), in anterodorsal view (A) and posteroventral view (B). The basioccipital is sheared flat, giving the impression of a ‘Liassic-grade’ basioccipital. C,D: left humerus (LEICT G1.2001.016), in dorsal view (C) and ventral view (D). Abbreviation: aae facet: facet for the anterior accessory element; dpc: deltopectoral crest; eca: extracondylar area; exf: exoccipital fact; fm: median concavity for the foramen magnum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["humerus", "sandstone", "spilsby"], "article_id"=>369407, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Valentin Fischer", "Michael W. Maisch", "Darren Naish", "Ralf Kosma", "Jeff Liston", "Ulrich Joger", "Fritz J. Krüger", "Judith Pardo Pérez", "Jessica Tainsh", "Robert M. Appleby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basioccipital_and_humerus_of_cf_Ophthalmosaurus_from_the_lower_sandstone_member_of_the_Spilsby_Formation_/369407", "title"=>"Basioccipital and humerus of cf. <i>Ophthalmosaurus</i> from the lower sandstone member of the Spilsby Formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:36:47"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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