The Distance Between Mars and Venus: Measuring Global Sex Differences in Personality
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{"title"=>"The distance between mars and venus: Measuring global sex differences in personality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marco", "last_name"=>"Del Giudice", "scopus_author_id"=>"16306594500"}, {"first_name"=>"Tom", "last_name"=>"Booth", "scopus_author_id"=>"55348066200"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Irwing", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602607457"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855366096", "sgr"=>"84855366096", "pui"=>"364037816", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"22238596", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029265"}, "id"=>"a2e1a9d5-f32b-3132-821c-c971aa0aa0d1", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a) measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b) estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c) assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261) with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D = 1.71 (24% overlap). These are extremely large differences by psychological standards.\\n\\nSIGNIFICANCE: The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/distance-between-mars-venus-measuring-global-sex-differences-personality", "reader_count"=>206, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>44, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>29}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>44, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>29}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>6, "Computer Science"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>13, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Physics and Astronomy"=>7, "Psychology"=>105, "Social Sciences"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>13}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>105}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>6}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>9, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Switzerland"=>1, "Russia"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Greece"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Poland"=>2, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Bosnia and Herzegovina"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>4}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696019"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Correlations above the diagonal = females (N = 5,137); below the diagonal = males (N = 5,124). Positive effect sizes indicate that males score higher than females. Correlations and effect sizes are uncorrected (i.e., not adjusted for score unreliability).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["univariate", "sizes", "observed"], "article_id"=>366437, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marco Del Giudice", "Tom Booth", "Paul Irwing"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029265.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_and_univariate_effect_sizes_for_observed_scores_/366437", "title"=>"Correlations and univariate effect sizes for observed scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:13:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696049"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Correlations above the diagonal = females (N = 5,137); below the diagonal = males (N = 5,124). Positive effect sizes indicate that males score higher than females.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["univariate", "sizes", "latent"], "article_id"=>366473, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marco Del Giudice", "Tom Booth", "Paul Irwing"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029265.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_and_univariate_effect_sizes_for_latent_variables_/366473", "title"=>"Correlations and univariate effect sizes for latent variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:14:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/695971"], "description"=>"<p>The effect size (ES) increases dramatically as better methods are employed. The male-female overlap (right-hand axis) is calculated on the joint distribution assuming multivariate normality.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "methods"], "article_id"=>366386, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marco Del Giudice", "Tom Booth", "Paul Irwing"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029265.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_magnitude_of_global_sex_differences_in_personality_estimated_with_different_methods_from_the_same_dataset_/366386", "title"=>"The magnitude of global sex differences in personality, estimated with different methods from the same dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:13:36"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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