Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla
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{"title"=>"Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga gracilaria vermiculophylla", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Göran M.", "last_name"=>"Nylund", "scopus_author_id"=>"9736880300"}, {"first_name"=>"Florian", "last_name"=>"Weinberger", "scopus_author_id"=>"56412785200"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Rempt", "scopus_author_id"=>"36554665700"}, {"first_name"=>"Georg", "last_name"=>"Pohnert", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003456708"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"83755188251", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029359", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"363120176", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22216258", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-83755188251"}, "id"=>"5481d47b-3a5d-39c5-9596-b79c4d6ffe6a", "abstract"=>"In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling involved pathways using metabolomics this work contributes significantly to the understanding of activated and inducible defences for marine macroalgae.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/metabolomic-assessment-induced-activated-chemical-defence-invasive-red-alga-gracilaria-vermiculophyl", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>7, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/700428"], "description"=>"<p>Odds ω for the relative deterrence of the herbivore by artificial diets containing either algal extracts or biomass (A) or isolated eicosanoids (B) are given. Means±95 % confidence intervals are given, asterisks indicate odds that are significantly above or below 1 (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). A: extract from mechanically wounded algae was tested relative to controls containing extract from intact algae and tissue of algae induced with extract from mechanically wounded algae was tested relative to tissue of control algae that were treated with extract from intact algae. B: five different eicosanoids were tested relative to solvent controls, either isolated or in combination (PGA<sub>2</sub>:PGE<sub>2</sub>:15-keto-PGE<sub>2</sub>:7,8-de-HETE in a ratio of 1∶1∶1∶0.5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemistry", "plant biology", "ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>370797, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Göran M. Nylund", "Florian Weinberger", "Martin Rempt", "Georg Pohnert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029359.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Feeding_preference_of_Idotea_baltica_/370797", "title"=>"Feeding preference of <i>Idotea baltica</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:36:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/700638"], "description"=>"<p>A: metabolites up- and down-regulated followed by mechanical simulation of herbivory. B: effects of <i>Idotea baltica</i> feeding on the expression of metabolites 2 (PGE<sub>2</sub>), 3 (15-keto-PGE<sub>2</sub>), 5 (7,8-di-HETE), 6 - 10 and 12-15. C: metabolites up-regulated followed by exposure to extracts from mechanically wounded algae. D: neighbouring effects of local mechanical wounding on the expression of metabolites 2 (PGE<sub>2</sub>), 3 (15-keto-PGE<sub>2</sub>), 5 (7,8-di-HETE), 6–10, 11 (8-HETE) and 12–15. Metabolic responses to the treatments are shown as peak areas normalised to corresponding controls. *Significant difference from the control (see the text for details). Data are means+SE, n = 10 (A), 8 (B, D) or 7 (C). Numbers at the end of the bars in A are the relative peak area for the metabolites up and down-regulated followed by simulation of herbivory. Note logaritmic scale in A.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analysed"], "article_id"=>371017, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Göran M. Nylund", "Florian Weinberger", "Martin Rempt", "Georg Pohnert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029359.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolic_response_of_Gracilaria_vermiculophylla_analysed_by_LC_MS_/371017", "title"=>"Metabolic response of <i>Gracilaria vermiculophylla</i> analysed by LC/MS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/700818"], "description"=>"<p>Data showing natural concentrations of up-regulated metabolites are means±SD, n = 3. Incorporation rates are based on the ratio of the molecular ion of a metabolite and the molecular ion of the corresponding labelled metabolite. Bold entries were verified with authentic standards.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compounds"], "article_id"=>371197, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Göran M. Nylund", "Florian Weinberger", "Martin Rempt", "Georg Pohnert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029359.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Identified_compounds_with_LC_UV_Vis_MS_/371197", "title"=>"Identified compounds with LC-UV/Vis-MS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:38:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/700569"], "description"=>"<p>Principal coordinate analysis of RT- <i>m/z</i> pairs derived from LC/MS and GC/MS analyses of <i>Gracilaria vermiculophylla</i> extracts. A & C: Extracts from mechanically wounded algae and controls, analysed by LC/MS and GC/MS, respectively. B & D: Extracts from algae exposed to extracts from previously mechanically wounded and control tissue, analysed by LC/MS and GC/MS, respectively. Numbers in brackets are the percentages of original variance explained by the derived axes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["metabolic"], "article_id"=>370951, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Göran M. Nylund", "Florian Weinberger", "Martin Rempt", "Georg Pohnert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029359.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LC_MS_and_GC_MS_metabolic_profiling_/370951", "title"=>"LC/MS and GC/MS metabolic profiling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:36:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/700720"], "description"=>"<p>* Indicates de novo biosynthesis after labelled arachidonic acid administration with incorporation rates of 43.2–62.4 %. † Indicates co-eluting peaks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromatogram", "mechanically", "wounded"], "article_id"=>371101, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Göran M. Nylund", "Florian Weinberger", "Martin Rempt", "Georg Pohnert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029359.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LC_MS_chromatogram_of_mechanically_wounded_Gracilaria_vermiculophylla_/371101", "title"=>"LC/MS chromatogram of mechanically wounded <i>Gracilaria vermiculophylla</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:37:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/700782"], "description"=>"<p>Questions asked and methods used to study chemical defences in <i>Gracilaria vermiculophylla</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asked", "methods", "defences"], "article_id"=>371164, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Göran M. Nylund", "Florian Weinberger", "Martin Rempt", "Georg Pohnert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029359.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Questions_asked_and_methods_used_to_study_chemical_defences_in_Gracilaria_vermiculophylla_/371164", "title"=>"Questions asked and methods used to study chemical defences in <i>Gracilaria vermiculophylla</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:37:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/700858"], "description"=>"<p>A: metabolites significantly up-regulated followed by mechanical simulation of herbivory. B: metabolites significantly up-regulated followed by exposure to extracts from previously mechanically wounded algae. Metabolic responses are presented as peak areas normalised to corresponding controls (means±SE, n = 8 (A), or 7 (B)). Suggested structures are from comparisons of MS spectral data with spectra in the NIST library. Metabolites with confirmed structure by comparisons to known standards in bold.</p>1<p>The most intense ion is given (the ion <i>m/z</i> = 73 in not considered in this listing).</p>2<p>Library suggestion are only included if the match and reverse match were more than 790.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vermiculophylla", "analysed"], "article_id"=>371237, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Göran M. Nylund", "Florian Weinberger", "Martin Rempt", "Georg Pohnert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029359.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolic_response_of_Gracilaria_vermiculophylla_analysed_by_GC_MS_/371237", "title"=>"Metabolic response of <i>Gracilaria vermiculophylla analysed by GC/MS.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:38:15"}

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Relative Metric

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