Positivity of the English Language
Publication Date
January 11, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Isabel M. Kloumann, Christopher M. Danforth, Kameron Decker Harris, Catherine A. Bliss, et al
Volume
7
Issue
1
Pages
e29484
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0029484
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22247779
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3256157
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22247779
Web of Science
000301355700027
Scopus
84855674781
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/positivity-english-language
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Positivity of the English language", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Isabel M.", "last_name"=>"Kloumann", "scopus_author_id"=>"36642606300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher M.", "last_name"=>"Danforth", "scopus_author_id"=>"12808716500"}, {"first_name"=>"Kameron Decker", "last_name"=>"Harris", "scopus_author_id"=>"45561351900"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine A.", "last_name"=>"Bliss", "scopus_author_id"=>"54418543700"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter Sheridan", "last_name"=>"Dodds", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005561192"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "arxiv"=>"1108.5192", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855674781", "sgr"=>"84855674781", "pui"=>"364073978", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"22247779", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029484"}, "id"=>"23b0b5af-e0cc-3aee-a091-28c8a8bdec88", "abstract"=>"Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/positivity-english-language", "reader_count"=>128, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>11, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Computer Science"=>20, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>19, "Social Sciences"=>23, "Linguistics"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>23}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>19}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>11}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>20}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>3, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "China"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Algeria"=>1, "Nigeria"=>3, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84855674781"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84855674781?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84855674781&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84855674781&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84855674781", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84855674781", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84855674781", "dc:title"=>"Positivity of the English language", "dc:creator"=>"Kloumann I.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"1", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-01-11", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"11 January 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029484", "citedby-count"=>"50", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Vermont", "affiliation-city"=>"Burlington", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"22247779", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e29484", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0029484", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Counter

  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"342", "xml_views"=>"41", "html_views"=>"5508"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"62", "xml_views"=>"21", "html_views"=>"833"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"408"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"18", "html_views"=>"453"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"429"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"230"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"176"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"204"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"224"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"200"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"192"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"183"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"187"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"148"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"415", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"167"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"93", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"152"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"144"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"170"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"174"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"138"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693555"], "description"=>"<p>As for <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484#pone-0029484-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>, these ‘jellyfish plots’ are created using a sliding window of 500 words moving across the horizontal axis of usage frequency rank increments of 100.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health"], "article_id"=>363998, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deciles_for_standard_deviations_/363998", "title"=>"Deciles for standard deviations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 01:06:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693226"], "description"=>"<p>Words are centered at their values of and , and angles and colors are only used for the purpose of readability. Each word is a representative of the set of words found in a rectangle of size 0.5 by 375 in and , with all 5000 words located in the background by light gray points. The collapsed distribution at the top matches that shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484#pone-0029484-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["words", "york", "times", "usage"], "article_id"=>363675, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_words_for_the_New_York_Times_as_a_function_of_average_happiness_and_usage_frequency_rank_/363675", "title"=>"Example words for the New York Times as a function of average happiness and usage frequency rank .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 01:01:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693117"], "description"=>"<p>Average happiness ratings for 10,222 words were obtained using Mechanical Turk with 50 evaluations per word for a total of 501,110 human evaluations (see main text). The yellow shade indicates words with average happiness scores above the neutral value of 5, gray those below. The symbols show normalized frequency distributions for words with given usage frequency ranks (see legend) suggesting a rough internal scale-free consistency of positivity Upper inset plots show percentile locations and the lower inset plots show the number of words found when cumulating toward the positive and negative sides of the neutral score of 5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["english", "normalized", "distributions", "scores", "5000", "words"], "article_id"=>363559, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Positivity_bias_in_the_English_language_normalized_frequency_distributions_solid_black_curves_of_happiness_scores_for_the_5000_most_frequently_used_words_in_four_corpora_/363559", "title"=>"Positivity bias in the English language: normalized frequency distributions (solid black curves) of happiness scores for the 5000 most frequently used words in four corpora.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 00:59:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/353399", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/353525", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/353593", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/353686", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/353772", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/353849", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/353940", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354039", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354137", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354199", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354269"], "description"=>"<div><p>Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["positivity", "english"], "article_id"=>129844, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>36, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Positivity_of_the_English_Language/129844", "title"=>"Positivity of the English Language", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 02:44:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693647"], "description"=>"<p>Fit is .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "deviation", "estimates", "usage"], "article_id"=>364093, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spearman_correlation_coefficients_for_standard_deviation_of_word_happiness_estimates_as_a_function_of_usage_frequency_rank_/364093", "title"=>"Spearman correlation coefficients for standard deviation of word happiness estimates as a function of usage frequency rank.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 01:08:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693715"], "description"=>"<p>Details of the four corpora we examined for positivity bias.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["corpora", "examined", "positivity"], "article_id"=>364156, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_the_four_corpora_we_examined_for_positivity_bias_/364156", "title"=>"Details of the four corpora we examined for positivity bias.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 01:09:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693686"], "description"=>"<p>Fit is .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spearman", "usage"], "article_id"=>364129, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_fit_coefficients_Spearman_correlation_coefficients_and_values_for_average_word_happiness_as_a_function_of_usage_frequency_rank_/364129", "title"=>"Linear fit coefficients, Spearman correlation coefficients, and -values for average word happiness as a function of usage frequency rank .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 01:08:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693448"], "description"=>"<p>Similar to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484#pone-0029484-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a>, each word shown represents all words in rectangles of size 0.2 and 375 in and . The histogram at the top of the figure represents the overall distribution for for the first 5000 most frequent words. The light gray points indicate locations of the most frequent 5000 words in the Google Books corpus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["words", "google", "books", "corpus", "usage", "deviation"], "article_id"=>363890, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_words_for_the_Google_Books_corpus_as_a_function_of_usage_frequency_rank_and_standard_deviation_of_happiness_estimates_/363890", "title"=>"Example words for the Google Books corpus as a function of usage frequency rank and standard deviation of happiness estimates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 01:04:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/693328"], "description"=>"<p>These ‘jellyfish plots’ are created using a sliding window of 500 words moving down the vertical axis of usage frequency rank in increments of 100. The gray points mark for individual words, as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484#pone-0029484-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a>. The overall distributions of , matching those in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484#pone-0029484-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>, cap each plot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "usage"], "article_id"=>363775, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Isabel M. Kloumann", "Christopher M. Danforth", "Kameron Decker Harris", "Catherine A. Bliss", "Peter Sheridan Dodds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029484.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deciles_for_average_word_happiness_distributions_as_a_function_of_word_usage_frequency_rank_/363775", "title"=>"Deciles for average word happiness distributions as a function of word usage frequency rank .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-11 01:02:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"9", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"11", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"0", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[354, 559, 676, 770, 854, 949, 1040, 1128, 1220, 1295, 1364, 1439, 1511, 1580, 1636, 1693, 1753, 1808, 1882, 1944, 2019, 2070, 2120, 2176, 2247]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[325, 522, 627, 718, 804, 884, 969, 1052, 1131, 1207, 1277, 1346, 1415, 1478, 1542, 1605, 1663, 1723, 1776, 1839, 1895, 1955, 2008, 2066, 2123]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Linguistics", "average_usage"=>[300, 519, 627, 708, 779, 867, 951, 1007, 1089, 1155, 1239, 1297, 1371, 1432, 1497, 1566, 1660, 1727, 1783, 1839, 1933, 1995, 2064, 2109, 2135]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Sociology", "average_usage"=>[379, 645, 772, 877, 988, 1089, 1191, 1313, 1410, 1521, 1621, 1696, 1785, 1857, 1932, 2023, 2100, 2186, 2256, 2345, 2429, 2505, 2595, 2646, 2741]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts