Wind-Driven Roof Turbines: A Novel Way to Improve Ventilation for TB Infection Control in Health Facilities
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Wind-driven roof turbines: A novel way to improve ventilation for TB infection control in health facilities", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Helen", "last_name"=>"Cox", "scopus_author_id"=>"35228720000"}, {"first_name"=>"Rod", "last_name"=>"Escombe", "scopus_author_id"=>"8357894400"}, {"first_name"=>"Cheryl", "last_name"=>"McDermid", "scopus_author_id"=>"16242127100"}, {"first_name"=>"Yolanda", "last_name"=>"Mtshemla", "scopus_author_id"=>"54886469900"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim", "last_name"=>"Spelman", "scopus_author_id"=>"25623864800"}, {"first_name"=>"Virginia", "last_name"=>"Azevedo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003702855"}, {"first_name"=>"Leslie", "last_name"=>"London", "scopus_author_id"=>"55221684300"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364051268", "sgr"=>"84855506808", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029589", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855506808", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22253742"}, "id"=>"ea0b62d8-97d5-3487-bf01-0b64a751f0a6", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis transmission in healthcare facilities contributes significantly to the TB epidemic, particularly in high HIV settings. Although improving ventilation may reduce transmission, there is a lack of evidence to support low-cost practical interventions. We assessed the efficacy of wind-driven roof turbines to achieve recommended ventilation rates, compared to current recommended practices for natural ventilation (opening windows), in primary care clinic rooms in Khayelitsha, South Africa. METHODS: Room ventilation was assessed (CO₂ gas tracer technique) in 4 rooms where roof turbines and air-intake grates were installed, across three scenarios: turbine, grate and window closed, only window open, and only turbine and grate open, with concurrent wind speed measurement. 332 measurements were conducted over 24 months. FINDINGS: For all 4 rooms combined, median air changes per hour (ACH) increased with wind speed quartiles across all scenarios. Higher median ACH were recorded with open roof turbines and grates, compared to open windows across all wind speed quartiles. Ventilation with open turbine and grate exceeded WHO-recommended levels (60 Litres/second/patient) for 95% or more of measurements in 3 of the 4 rooms; 47% in the remaining room, where wind speeds were lower and a smaller diameter turbine was installed. CONCLUSION: High room ventilation rates, meeting recommended thresholds, may be achieved using wind-driven roof turbines and grates, even at low wind speeds. Roof turbines and air-intake grates are not easily closed by staff, allowing continued ventilation through colder periods. This simple, low-cost technology represents an important addition to our tools for TB infection control.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/winddriven-roof-turbines-novel-way-improve-ventilation-tb-infection-control-health-facilities", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Niger"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/695434/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>A: Roof turbine with ducting from roofline to ceiling, B: roof turbine without ducting (no roof space), C: photograph of outside of clinic room, showing roof turbine and air-intake grate, and D: design of louvred air-intake grates used (effective opening area is 0.68 of actual grate area).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["turbines", "air-intake"], "article_id"=>365840, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Helen Cox", "Rod Escombe", "Cheryl McDermid", "Yolanda Mtshemla", "Tim Spelman", "Virginia Azevedo", "Leslie London"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029589.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Installation_of_roof_turbines_and_air_intake_grates_/365840", "title"=>"Installation of roof turbines and air-intake grates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:10:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/695530/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Median ACH by wind speed quartiles (Q) and for each scenario, for all rooms combined, given for each of the 3 scenarios tested (error bars are 95% confidence intervals for the median).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ach", "quartiles", "rooms", "scenarios", "tested", "bars", "intervals"], "article_id"=>365941, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Helen Cox", "Rod Escombe", "Cheryl McDermid", "Yolanda Mtshemla", "Tim Spelman", "Virginia Azevedo", "Leslie London"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029589.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Median_ACH_by_wind_speed_quartiles_Q_and_for_each_scenario_for_all_rooms_combined_given_for_each_of_the_3_scenarios_tested_error_bars_are_95_confidence_intervals_for_the_median_/365941", "title"=>"Median ACH by wind speed quartiles (Q) and for each scenario, for all rooms combined, given for each of the 3 scenarios tested (error bars are 95% confidence intervals for the median).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:11:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/695643/Figure_3.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Association between wind speed and room ventilation (m<sup>3</sup>/hour) for measurements with the roof turbine and air intake grate, all rooms combined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventilation", "turbine", "intake", "rooms"], "article_id"=>366060, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Helen Cox", "Rod Escombe", "Cheryl McDermid", "Yolanda Mtshemla", "Tim Spelman", "Virginia Azevedo", "Leslie London"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029589.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Association_between_wind_speed_and_room_ventilation_m_3_hour_for_measurements_with_the_roof_turbine_and_air_intake_grate_all_rooms_combined_/366060", "title"=>"Association between wind speed and room ventilation (m<sup>3</sup>/hour) for measurements with the roof turbine and air intake grate, all rooms combined.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:11:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/695777/Table_3.xls"], "description"=>"<p>*Calculated by using the measurement of actual flow through the turbine, at the same time as overall ACH measurement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "turbine", "grate"], "article_id"=>366191, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Helen Cox", "Rod Escombe", "Cheryl McDermid", "Yolanda Mtshemla", "Tim Spelman", "Virginia Azevedo", "Leslie London"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029589.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Median_ACH_range_and_number_of_measurements_that_are_above_the_WHO_recommendation_for_each_room_comparing_window_only_and_turbine_and_grate_only_/366191", "title"=>"Median ACH, range and number of measurements that are above the WHO recommendation for each room, comparing window only and turbine and grate only.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:12:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/695817/Table_2.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of measured wind speed (km/hr) by clinic.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "public health and epidemiology"], "article_id"=>366229, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Helen Cox", "Rod Escombe", "Cheryl McDermid", "Yolanda Mtshemla", "Tim Spelman", "Virginia Azevedo", "Leslie London"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029589.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_measured_wind_speed_km_hr_by_clinic_/366229", "title"=>"Distribution of measured wind speed (km/hr) by clinic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:12:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/695857/Table_1.xls"], "description"=>"<p>*Calculated based on recommendation of 60 L/second/patient using room volume and assuming one patient per room.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["turbines", "intake"], "article_id"=>366273, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Helen Cox", "Rod Escombe", "Cheryl McDermid", "Yolanda Mtshemla", "Tim Spelman", "Virginia Azevedo", "Leslie London"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029589.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_clinic_rooms_roof_turbines_and_air_intake_grates_/366273", "title"=>"Description of clinic rooms, roof turbines and air intake grates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 10:13:04"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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