Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat
Publication Date
December 27, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Silvan Rieben, Olena Kalinina, Bernhard Schmid & Simon L. Zeller
Volume
6
Issue
12
Pages
e29730
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0029730
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22216349
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3246478
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22216349
Web of Science
000300674900057
Scopus
84455173032
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/gene-flow-genetically-modified-wheat
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Gene flow in genetically modified wheat", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Silvan", "last_name"=>"Rieben", "scopus_author_id"=>"54793323000"}, {"first_name"=>"Olena", "last_name"=>"Kalinina", "scopus_author_id"=>"36608275500"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernhard", "last_name"=>"Schmid", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102653764"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon L.", "last_name"=>"Zeller", "scopus_author_id"=>"35308520600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"363155926", "sgr"=>"84455173032", "pmid"=>"22216349", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84455173032", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029730", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"73d329b8-cd3f-3424-b2a9-b2b9c6178966", "abstract"=>"Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting \"phytometers\" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/gene-flow-genetically-modified-wheat", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Psychology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Iceland"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698875"], "description"=>"<p>A: Upper and lower boundaries of cross-pollination rate estimates (mean±1 SE, back-transformed from logit scale) for western and eastern distance subplots. Data from all lines were pooled. B: Maximum likelihood estimate of cross-pollination rate for the western and eastern subplots for the lines <i>Pm3b</i>#1, <i>Pm3b</i>#2 and A9 <i>chi</i>. These estimates indicate cross-pollination rates between 1.2% and 0.16% in the closest and 0.05% and 0.0% in the farthest subplots.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gm", "distances"], "article_id"=>369269, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvan Rieben", "Olena Kalinina", "Bernhard Schmid", "Simon L. Zeller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_pollination_of_GM_wheat_over_short_distances_and_in_two_wind_directions_/369269", "title"=>"Cross-pollination of GM wheat over short distances and in two wind directions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-27 02:34:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699043"], "description"=>"<p>Non-GM recipient control lines (S3b #1–4) had significantly lower cross-pollination rates than GM recipient lines (<i>Pm3b</i>#1–4). The GM line <i>Pm3b</i>#2 with highest transgene expression and lowest fertility had significantly lower cross-pollination rates than the other recipient GM lines. Frisal and Casana are non-GM wheat varieties; A9 and A13 are GM lines based on the variety Frisal. The GM line A9 pollinated significantly more phytometer plants than did GM line A13. Cross-pollination is defined as number of seeds derived from cross-pollination divided by number of all seeds×100.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "pollen", "lines", "phytometer", "pollen-donor"], "article_id"=>369423, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvan Rieben", "Olena Kalinina", "Bernhard Schmid", "Simon L. Zeller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_pollination_rates_mean_177_1_standard_error_of_the_eight_pollen_recipient_lines_Bobwhite_phytometer_plants_and_the_four_pollen_donor_lines_background_plants_/369423", "title"=>"Cross-pollination rates (mean ± 1 standard error) of the eight pollen recipient lines (Bobwhite phytometer plants) and the four pollen-donor lines (background plants).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-27 02:37:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/355011", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/355061", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/355111", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/355161", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/355208"], "description"=>"<div><p>Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat <em>Triticum aestivum</em>. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained <em>Pm3b</em> or <em>chitinase</em>/<em>glucanase</em> transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the <em>Pm3b</em> transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a <em>chitinase</em> transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a <em>chitinase</em> and a <em>glucanase</em> transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene-flow distances can be efficiently estimated with population-level PCR analyses.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetically", "modified"], "article_id"=>130167, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Silvan Rieben", "Olena Kalinina", "Bernhard Schmid", "Simon L. Zeller"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029730.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Gene_Flow_in_Genetically_Modified_Wheat/130167", "title"=>"Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-12-27 00:02:47"}

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Relative Metric

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