BED Estimates of HIV Incidence: Resolving the Differences, Making Things Simpler
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{"title"=>"Bed estimates of HIV incidence: Resolving the differences, making things simpler", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Hargrove", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004979791"}, {"first_name"=>"Cari", "last_name"=>"van Schalkwyk", "scopus_author_id"=>"54883266300"}, {"first_name"=>"Hayden", "last_name"=>"Eastwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"54883043800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22235334", "sgr"=>"84855384957", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029736", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855384957", "pui"=>"364030913", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"e5c57e8d-97f8-3df7-8a61-fb703e6e637d", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE: Develop a simple method for optimal estimation of HIV incidence using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay.\\n\\nDESIGN: Use existing BED data to estimate mean recency duration, false recency rates and HIV incidence with reference to a fixed time period, T.\\n\\nMETHODS: Compare BED and cohort estimates of incidence referring to identical time frames. Generalize this approach to suggest a method for estimating HIV incidence from any cross-sectional survey.\\n\\nRESULTS: Follow-up and BED analyses of the same, initially HIV negative, cases followed over the same set time period T, produce estimates of the same HIV incidence, permitting the estimation of the BED mean recency period for cases who have been HIV positive for less than T. Follow-up of HIV positive cases over T, similarly, provides estimates of the false-recent rate appropriate for T. Knowledge of these two parameters for a given population allows the estimation of HIV incidence during T by applying the BED method to samples from cross-sectional surveys. An algorithm is derived for providing these estimates, adjusted for the false-recent rate. The resulting estimator is identical to one derived independently using a more formal mathematical analysis. Adjustments improve the accuracy of HIV incidence estimates. Negative incidence estimates result from the use of inappropriate estimates of the false-recent rate and/or from sampling error, not from any error in the adjustment procedure.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Referring all estimates of mean recency periods, false-recent rates and incidence estimates to a fixed period T simplifies estimation procedures and allows the development of a consistent method for producing adjusted estimates of HIV incidence of improved accuracy. Unadjusted BED estimates of incidence, based on life-time recency periods, would be both extremely difficult to produce and of doubtful value.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bed-estimates-hiv-incidence-resolving-differences-making-things-simpler", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697851"], "description"=>"<p>For PNP = 0 there are no “non-progressors” – <i>i.e.</i> it is assumed that every person, at some point, has a BED OD><i>C</i>, the pre-set OD cut-off. For PNP>0 some people never have an OD><i>C</i>. In both cases, however, it is allowed that some cases may revert, temporarily or permanently – <i>i.e.</i> that the OD declines from >0.8 to <0.8. Note that this implies that the level of ε may vary with the time since seroconversion and, in particular, may not even (as illustrated for simplicity) increase monotonically with time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["probability", "hiv"], "article_id"=>368256, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["John Hargrove", "Cari van Schalkwyk", "Hayden Eastwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029736.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_probability_of_testing_recent_by_BED_with_time_since_HIV_infection_/368256", "title"=>"Changes in the probability of testing recent by BED with time since HIV infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:17:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354153"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Objective</h3><p>Develop a simple method for optimal estimation of HIV incidence using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay.</p> <h3>Design</h3><p>Use existing BED data to estimate mean recency duration, false recency rates and HIV incidence with reference to a fixed time period, <em>T</em>.</p> <h3>Methods</h3><p>Compare BED and cohort estimates of incidence referring to identical time frames. Generalize this approach to suggest a method for estimating HIV incidence from any cross-sectional survey.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>Follow-up and BED analyses of the same, initially HIV negative, cases followed over the same set time period <em>T</em>, produce estimates of the same HIV incidence, permitting the estimation of the BED mean recency period for cases who have been HIV positive for less than <em>T</em>. Follow-up of HIV positive cases over <em>T</em>, similarly, provides estimates of the false-recent rate appropriate for <em>T</em>. Knowledge of these two parameters for a given population allows the estimation of HIV incidence during <em>T</em> by applying the BED method to samples from cross-sectional surveys. An algorithm is derived for providing these estimates, adjusted for the false-recent rate. The resulting estimator is identical to one derived independently using a more formal mathematical analysis. Adjustments improve the accuracy of HIV incidence estimates. Negative incidence estimates result from the use of inappropriate estimates of the false-recent rate and/or from sampling error, not from any error in the adjustment procedure.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Referring all estimates of mean recency periods, false-recent rates and incidence estimates to a fixed period <em>T</em> simplifies estimation procedures and allows the development of a consistent method for producing adjusted estimates of HIV incidence of improved accuracy. Unadjusted BED estimates of incidence, based on life-time recency periods, would be both extremely difficult to produce and of doubtful value.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "hiv", "resolving", "making", "things", "simpler"], "article_id"=>129997, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["John Hargrove", "Cari van Schalkwyk", "Hayden Eastwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029736", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/BED_Estimates_of_HIV_Incidence_Resolving_the_Differences_Making_Things_Simpler/129997", "title"=>"BED Estimates of HIV Incidence: Resolving the Differences, Making Things Simpler", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:46:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697733"], "description"=>"<p>Clients were first seen at time 0 and then again a year later. For purposes of illustration it is assumed that all cases had seroconverted two years previously at which time they had a BED OD close to zero. See the text for discussion of possible changes in BED OD before the clients were tested at <i>t</i> = 0 and again after they were tested at <i>t</i> = 1. B. Possible long-term changes in BED OD following HIV infection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "changes", "optical", "scenarios", "observed", "zvitambo", "observational"], "article_id"=>368126, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["John Hargrove", "Cari van Schalkwyk", "Hayden Eastwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029736.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Patterns_of_changes_in_BED_optical_density_showing_the_range_of_scenarios_actually_observed_in_the_ZVITAMBO_Trial_and_possible_changes_before_and_after_the_observational_period_/368126", "title"=>"A. Patterns of changes in BED optical density showing the range of scenarios actually observed in the ZVITAMBO Trial and possible changes before and after the observational period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:15:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697601"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of baseline and 12-month postpartum HIV results and, for the latter, of the BED results for HIV positive cases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["baseline", "12-month", "postpartum", "hiv"], "article_id"=>367997, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["John Hargrove", "Cari van Schalkwyk", "Hayden Eastwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029736.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_baseline_and_12_month_postpartum_HIV_results_and_for_the_latter_of_the_BED_results_for_HIV_positive_cases_/367997", "title"=>"Summary of baseline and 12-month postpartum HIV results and, for the latter, of the BED results for HIV positive cases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:13:17"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[316, 541, 663, 766, 856, 950, 1041, 1128, 1218, 1302, 1382, 1456, 1526, 1593, 1657, 1729, 1796, 1862, 1930, 1999, 2065, 2132, 2202, 2261, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[339, 580, 709, 814, 907, 1003, 1095, 1190, 1286, 1375, 1466, 1546, 1622, 1694, 1765, 1830, 1902, 1978, 2054, 2122, 2194, 2269, 2330, 2388, 2460]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[328, 580, 713, 821, 914, 1012, 1107, 1202, 1293, 1381, 1477, 1551, 1633, 1694, 1769, 1847, 1917, 1986, 2056, 2121, 2194, 2267, 2329, 2410, 2461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Public and occupational health", "average_usage"=>[327, 554, 673, 780, 874, 968, 1060, 1133, 1222, 1304, 1376, 1463, 1536, 1602, 1663, 1742, 1796, 1853, 1931, 1985, 2044, 2108, 2170, 2248, 2305]}]}
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