Effects of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels and Expected Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Colorado, USA
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{"title"=>"Effects of mountain pine beetle on fuels and expected fire behavior in lodgepole pine forests, Colorado, USA", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tania", "last_name"=>"Schoennagel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602371914"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas T.", "last_name"=>"Veblen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005710296"}, {"first_name"=>"José F.", "last_name"=>"Negron", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603739126"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeremy M.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410168812"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84855841600", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0030002", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364093637", "isbn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22272268", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855841600", "arxiv"=>"arXiv:1011.1669v3"}, "id"=>"437538af-cb6e-3c2c-8bd6-d9df7d99280c", "abstract"=>"In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1-3 yrs], Grey [4-10 yrs], and Old-MPB [∼30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30-55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25-35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-mountain-pine-beetle-fuels-expected-fire-behavior-lodgepole-pine-forests-colorado-usa", "reader_count"=>74, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>34, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>34}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>3}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691678"], "description"=>"<p>Fuel and foliar moisture values (%) and effects on critical surface fireline intensity (kW/m; the surface fire intensity needed to initial crown fire) for the extreme drought (XD), very dry (VD) and moderately dry (D) moisture scenarios: A) surface fuel moisture B) crown foliar moisture, C) average canopy foliar moisture, D) critical surface fireline intensity<sup>1</sup>, where canopy moisture reflects red foliage and dead 1-hr fuel moistures as shown in C, and E) critical surface fireline intensity<sup>2</sup>, where canopy moisture reflects that of the Green stage for all four MPB stages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["moisture", "inputs"], "article_id"=>362142, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fuel_moisture_inputs_and_effects_on_critical_surface_fire_intensity_/362142", "title"=>"Fuel moisture inputs and effects on critical surface fire intensity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:35:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691484"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of predicted fire behavior: A) Surface Fireline Intensity, B) Critical Surface Intensity, C) Transition Ratio, D) Active Ratio, E) Crown Fireline Intensity for Green (light green line), Red (red line), Grey (grey line), and Old-MPB (dark green line) stages under Extreme Drought (XD), Very Dry (VD) and Moderately Dry (D) moisture scenarios (see text for description of MPB stages and moisture scenarios).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crown", "outputs", "modeled", "stages", "mpb"], "article_id"=>361946, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Surface_and_crown_fire_outputs_modeled_for_four_stages_of_MPB_attack_/361946", "title"=>"Surface and crown fire outputs modeled for four stages of MPB attack.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:32:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691162"], "description"=>"<p>Graphic characterizing an idealized sequence of Green unattacked stands, compared to the three stages subsequent to MPB attack. In this chronosequence, 40% of the trees were killed by MPB in the Red stand. In the Grey stand needles fall from the MPB-attacked trees with some attacked trees fallen, opening up the canopy and allowing for higher wind speeds. In the Old-MPB stand most of the MPB-attacked trees have fallen to the ground contributing to high 1000-hr surface fuel load and slightly diminished wind speeds compared to the Grey stand.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["progression", "stages", "mpb"], "article_id"=>361639, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Idealized_progression_of_four_stages_of_MPB_attack_/361639", "title"=>"Idealized progression of four stages of MPB attack.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:27:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691644"], "description"=>"<p>Predicted fire types based on the wind speed at which the Transition Ratio and Active Ratio are <1 (NO) and/or >1(YES). If the Transition Ratio is ≥1 for a given wind speed, Surface Fireline Intensity is sufficient for transition to crown fire at that wind speed or greater. If the active ratio is ≥1 for a given wind speed, the fire is predicted to be an active crown fire at that wind speed or greater. Fire types are: 1) Surface (understory fire that does not reach the crowns), 2) Torching (also known as Passive Crown Fire; surface fire with occasional torching of individual trees), 3) Conditional Crown (active crown fire possible, if the fire transitions to the overstory, but such crown transition is not predicted in the current stand for the given wind conditions), and 4) Active Crown Fire (fire spreads from crown to crown).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predicting"], "article_id"=>362115, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boolean_logic_for_predicting_fire_types_/362115", "title"=>"Boolean logic for predicting fire types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:35:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691707"], "description"=>"<p>Wind speeds (km/hr) at which four fire types are expected for the four MPB stages: Green, Red, Grey and Old-MPB under three moisture scenarios: extreme drought (XD), very dry (VD) and moderately dry (D) moisture scenarios, where available canopy fuel moisture is held constant across MPB stage at that of the Green stage. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002#pone-0030002-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for description of fire types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thresholds", "types", "canopy", "moisture"], "article_id"=>362168, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wind_speed_thresholds_for_predicted_fire_types_km_hr_where_canopy_fuel_moisture_is_constant_/362168", "title"=>"Wind-speed thresholds for predicted fire types (km/hr), where canopy fuel moisture is constant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:36:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691371"], "description"=>"<p>Total and proportion of total basal area of green, red/fading, and grey trees among four stages of MPB attack (Green, Red, Grey, Old-MPB; see text for description of MPB stages), and comparison of average canopy fuel loads among the four MPB stages of MPB attack with bars representing standard errors. P-values from ANOVAs in upper right of each graph, with letters indicating significant difference based on Tukey's pairwise comparison of means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fuels", "stages", "mpb"], "article_id"=>361839, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Canopy_fuels_in_four_stages_of_MPB_attack_/361839", "title"=>"Canopy fuels in four stages of MPB attack.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:30:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691614"], "description"=>"<p>Wind speeds (km/hr) at which four fire types are expected for the four MPB stages: Green, Red, Grey and Old-MPB under three moisture scenarios: extreme drought (XD), very dry (VD) and moderately dry (D) moisture scenarios, where available canopy fuel moisture reflects the proportion of red and green needles in each stage as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002#pone-0030002-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1C</a>. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002#pone-0030002-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for description of fire types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thresholds", "types", "canopy", "moisture"], "article_id"=>362077, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wind_speed_thresholds_for_predicted_fire_types_km_hr_where_canopy_fuel_moisture_varies_/362077", "title"=>"Wind-speed thresholds for predicted fire types (km/hr), where canopy fuel moisture varies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:34:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691040"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the study area in west-central Colorado, showing 40 sites sampled in four stages of time-since MPB attack.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>361518, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_area_map_/361518", "title"=>"Study area map.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:25:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691249"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of average dead surface fuel loads among four stages of MPB attack (Green, Red, Grey, Old-MPB; see text for description of MPB stages), with bars representing standard errors. P-values from ANOVAs in upper right of each graph, with letters indicating significant difference based on Tukey's pairwise comparison of means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fuels", "stages", "mpb"], "article_id"=>361720, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dead_surface_fuels_in_four_stages_of_MPB_attack_/361720", "title"=>"Dead surface fuels in four stages of MPB attack.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 00:28:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/352074", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/352118"], "description"=>"<div><p>In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1–3 yrs], Grey [4–10 yrs], and Old-MPB [∼30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30–55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25–35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["effects", "beetle", "fuels", "lodgepole", "usa"], "article_id"=>129586, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Tania Schoennagel", "Thomas T. Veblen", "José F. Negron", "Jeremy M. Smith"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effects_of_Mountain_Pine_Beetle_on_Fuels_and_Expected_Fire_Behavior_in_Lodgepole_Pine_Forests_Colorado_USA/129586", "title"=>"Effects of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels and Expected Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Colorado, USA", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-01-17 02:39:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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