Homology and Architecture of the Caudal Basket of Pachycephalosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): The First Occurrence of Myorhabdoi in Tetrapoda
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{"title"=>"Homology and architecture of the caudal basket of pachycephalosauria (dinosauria: Ornithischia): The first occurrence of myorhabdoi in Tetrapoda", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Caleb Marshall", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"26638019100"}, {"first_name"=>"Anthony P.", "last_name"=>"Russell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402736382"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84855857567", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855857567", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"364093738", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0030212", "pmid"=>"22272307"}, "id"=>"3f08fbea-5cbe-3143-b875-2a33c24452fc", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Associated postcranial skeletons of pachycephalosaurids, most notably those of Stegoceras and Homalocephale, reveal enigmatic osseous structures not present in other tetrapod clades. The homology and functional significance of these structures have remained elusive as they were originally interpreted to be abdominal ribs or gastralia, and more recently have been interpreted as de novo structures in the tail.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of these structures in nearly all pachycephalosaurid skeletons has facilitated a complete description of their architecture, and the establishment of patterns consistent with those of myorhabdoid ossifications--ossifications of the myoseptal tendons associated with myomeres. The presence and structure of myorhabdoid ossifications are well established for teleost fish, but this marks their first recognition within Tetrapoda. These elements are both structurally and histologically distinct from the deep, paraxial ossified tendon bundles of other ornithischian clades, although they may have performed a similar function in the stiffening of the tail.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These myorhabdoi are not de novo structures, but are instead ossifications (and therefore more amenable to fossilization) of the normally unossified plesiomorphic caudal myosepta of vertebrates. The ubiquitous ossification of these structures in pachycephalosaurids (all specimens preserving the tail also exhibit myorhabdoid ossifications) suggests it is a likely synapomorphic condition for Pachycephalosauria.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/homology-architecture-caudal-basket-pachycephalosauria-dinosauria-ornithischia-first-occurrence-myor", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692642"], "description"=>"<p>The proposed homologies of the myoseptal segments of Gemballa et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Gemballa4\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> (<b>A</b>) with six tendon rows of Maryańska and Osmólska <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Maryaska2\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a> (<b>B</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["homologies", "myoseptal", "segments", "teleosts"], "article_id"=>363088, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_homologies_of_the_myoseptal_segments_of_teleosts_with_those_of_Homalocephale_/363088", "title"=>"Proposed homologies of the myoseptal segments of teleosts with those of <i>Homalocephale</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:55:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/691855"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Type 1 – ‘Heavy segments’ – “Large, heavy, sinuous segments with more or less flattened ends that are sometimes grooved with ray-like points” (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Gilmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>:31). These show right and left symmetry. One element reflected in the vertical plane: left; external view, right; internal view. <b>B</b>) Type 2 – ‘Double pointed segments’ – “Smaller, subround, sinuous segments having both ends slightly flattened and slenderly pointed” (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Gilmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>:32). Two elements of each ‘side’ are shown, reflected in the horizontal plane: upper; external view, lower; internal view. <b>C</b>) Type 3 – ‘Attenuated segments’ – “Of about the same size as the second, subround, sinuous, with one flattened end, the other drawn out into a slender attenuated rod-like process” (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Gilmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>:32). Two elements reflected in the vertical plane and of uncertain orientation. <b>D</b>) Type 4 – ‘Bifurcated segments - Rare (only two elements known). “Small, with long bifurcated divergent rounded processes at one end, with the other end unknown” (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Gilmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>:32). Two elements reflected in the horizontal plane: upper; external view, lower; internal view. <b>E</b>) Type 5 – ‘Median segments’ - Also rare. “Three small bones that are suggestive of being bilateral median segments, but the fact that both are asymmetrical would rather negative this suggestion” (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Gilmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>:32). These were incorrectly labeled as Type 4 four in Plate 14 of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Gilmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>. Two elements reflected in the horizontal plane and of uncertain orientation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["typifying", "tendon", "morphotypes", "gilmore"], "article_id"=>362312, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elements_typifying_the_five_tendon_morphotypes_of_Gilmore_3_in_internal_and_external_views_/362312", "title"=>"Elements typifying the five tendon morphotypes of Gilmore [<b>3</b>] in internal and external views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:51:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692742"], "description"=>"<p>Occurrence of myorhabdoid ossifications in pachycephalosaurid taxa based upon three recent hypotheses of pachycephalosaur relationships: <b>A</b>) Williamson and Carr <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Williamson1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>; <b>B</b>) Sullivan <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Sullivan1\" target=\"_blank\">[47]</a>; <b>C</b>) Longrich et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Longrich1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a>. Solid circle demarcates Pachycephalosauridae. Squares indicate taxa with significant postcranial material; white = no evidence of myorhabdoid ossifications, black = articulated myorhabdoid ossifications, grey = disarticulated myorhabdoid ossifications. Solid lines indicate inferred presence of myorhabdoid ossifications based on topology. Taxonomic nomenclature follows that of each original publication.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["myorhabdoid", "ossifications", "pachycephalosaurid"], "article_id"=>363188, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Occurrence_of_myorhabdoid_ossifications_in_pachycephalosaurid_taxa_/363188", "title"=>"Occurrence of myorhabdoid ossifications in pachycephalosaurid taxa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:56:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692320"], "description"=>"<p>Types 1 and 2 are further broken down showing the relative proportions of the mirror image conformations of each type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proportions", "caudal", "tendons", "ualvp"], "article_id"=>362772, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pie_chart_showing_relative_proportions_of_representation_of_the_caudal_tendons_of_UALVP_002_/362772", "title"=>"Pie chart showing relative proportions of representation of the caudal tendons of UALVP 002.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:54:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692214"], "description"=>"<p>Unfused (<b>A</b>) and fused (<b>B</b>) type 2 tendons as seen in articulation in <i>Homalocephale</i> (MPC-D 100/1201) and <i>Stegoceras</i> (UALVP 002). Fused type 2 tendons with pattern of breakage resulting in type 5 (<b>C</b>) and type 4 (<b>D</b>) tendons seen in UALVP 002.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjacent", "tendon"], "article_id"=>362671, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fusion_of_adjacent_tendon_pairs_/362671", "title"=>"Fusion of adjacent tendon pairs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:53:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692413"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) A block showing the association of the dissociated elements and chevrons, reinforcing a caudal origin of the elements, and also illustrating the apical fusion of two paired elements in “V”: articulation (indicated by arrow). <b>B</b>) A smaller block from the more distal region of the tail illustrating the relative size of the thicker central portion of the elements versus the drawn-out and attenuated extremities, and the nearly parallel orientation of the attenuated extremities. Light grey = sandstone, white = caudal tendons, dark grey = chevrons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sandstone", "blocks", "caudal", "tendons", "ualvp"], "article_id"=>362864, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustrations_of_sandstone_blocks_with_in_situ_caudal_tendons_of_UALVP_002_/362864", "title"=>"Illustrations of sandstone blocks with <i>in situ</i> caudal tendons of UALVP 002.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:54:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692026"], "description"=>"<p>Articulated caudal tendons in matrix block from the 14th to 20th caudal vertebrae of <i>Homalocephale</i> (MPC-D 100/1201) in left lateral view. <b>A</b>) photograph of articulated block without interpretation (modified from Maryańska and Osmólska <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Maryaska2\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>). <b>B</b>) colored overlays of putatively serially homologous tendinous elements illustrating the six rows noted by Maryańska and Osmólska <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Maryaska2\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>. <b>C</b>) Matrix removed showing position of tendon rows relative to the underlying vertebrae. <b>D</b>) Reconstructed tendons after elimination of the ventral slumping and slight rotation of the articulated tendons relative to the underlying vertebrae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caudal", "tendons", "lateral"], "article_id"=>362487, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Articulated_caudal_tendons_of_Homalocephale_in_lateral_view_/362487", "title"=>"Articulated caudal tendons of <i>Homalocephale</i> in lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:52:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692125"], "description"=>"<p>A schematic diagram of the articulated caudal tendons in the matrix block from the 14th to 20th caudal vertebrae of <i>Homalocephale</i> (MPC-D 100/1201) in <b>A</b>) anterior, <b>B</b>) left lateral, <b>C</b>) posterior, and <b>D</b>) dorsal views. White = bone, grey = matrix, and colors = tendons rows.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articulated", "caudal", "tendons"], "article_id"=>362579, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_the_articulated_caudal_tendons_of_Homalocephale_in_multiple_views_/362579", "title"=>"Schematic of the articulated caudal tendons of <i>Homalocephale</i> in multiple views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:53:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/692510"], "description"=>"<p>The proposed homologies of (<b>A</b>) the caudal musculature of crocodilians (<i>Gavialis</i> – Modified from Frey <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Frey1\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a>), with (<b>B</b>) the six tendon rows of Maryańska and Osmólska <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212#pone.0030212-Maryaska2\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a> in <i>Homalocephale</i>. Anterior oriented to the left. Red = <i>M. spinalis caudae</i> (<i>M. tendino-articularis</i>), Green = <i>M. longissimus caudae</i>, Blue = <i>M. ilio-ischio-caudalis</i>, Horizontal dashed line = horizontal skeletogenous septum, vertical dashed lines = vertebral boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["homologies", "caudal", "musculature", "crocodilians"], "article_id"=>362962, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Caleb Marshall Brown", "Anthony P. Russell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030212.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_homologies_of_the_caudal_musculature_of_crocodilians_with_that_of_Homalocephale_/362962", "title"=>"Proposed homologies of the caudal musculature of crocodilians with that of <i>Homalocephale</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:55:04"}

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Relative Metric

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