The Cost of Universal Health Care in India: A Model Based Estimate
Publication Date
January 27, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Shankar Prinja, Pankaj Bahuguna, Andrew D. Pinto, Atul Sharma, et al
Volume
7
Issue
1
Pages
e30362
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0030362
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22299038
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267714
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22299038
Web of Science
000301704200015
Scopus
84863392996
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/cost-universal-health-care-india-model-based-estimate-1
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The cost of universal health care in India: A model based estimate", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Shankar", "last_name"=>"Prinja", "scopus_author_id"=>"24391300800"}, {"first_name"=>"Pankaj", "last_name"=>"Bahuguna", "scopus_author_id"=>"39561016200"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew D.", "last_name"=>"Pinto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402306537"}, {"first_name"=>"Atul", "last_name"=>"Sharma", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404971558"}, {"first_name"=>"Gursimer", "last_name"=>"Bharaj", "scopus_author_id"=>"55290704900"}, {"first_name"=>"Vishal", "last_name"=>"Kumar", "scopus_author_id"=>"56344689200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jaya Prasad", "last_name"=>"Tripathy", "scopus_author_id"=>"55290251600"}, {"first_name"=>"Manmeet", "last_name"=>"Kaur", "scopus_author_id"=>"9843650300"}, {"first_name"=>"Rajesh", "last_name"=>"Kumar", "scopus_author_id"=>"35334397200"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84863392996", "sgr"=>"84863392996", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0030362", "pmid"=>"22299038", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"364167997"}, "id"=>"d4972ed0-c84a-3774-84c3-c8614c0d9cfd", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: As high out-of-pocket healthcare expenses pose heavy financial burden on the families, Government of India is considering a variety of financing and delivery options to universalize health care services. Hence, an estimate of the cost of delivering universal health care services is needed.\\n\\nMETHODS: We developed a model to estimate recurrent and annual costs for providing health services through a mix of public and private providers in Chandigarh located in northern India. Necessary health services required to deliver good quality care were defined by the Indian Public Health Standards. National Sample Survey data was utilized to estimate disease burden. In addition, morbidity and treatment data was collected from two secondary and two tertiary care hospitals. The unit cost of treatment was estimated from the published literature. For diseases where data on treatment cost was not available, we collected data on standard treatment protocols and cost of care from local health providers.\\n\\nRESULTS: We estimate that the cost of universal health care delivery through the existing mix of public and private health institutions would be INR 1713 (USD 38, 95%CI USD 18-73) per person per annum in India. This cost would be 24% higher, if branded drugs are used. Extrapolation of these costs to entire country indicates that Indian government needs to spend 3.8% (2.1%-6.8%) of the GDP for universalizing health care services.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: The cost of universal health care delivered through a combination of public and private providers is estimated to be INR 1713 per capita per year in India. Important issues such as delivery strategy for ensuring quality, reducing inequities in access, and managing the growth of health care demand need be explored.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cost-universal-health-care-india-model-based-estimate-1", "reader_count"=>111, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>11, "Chemistry"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>14, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>50, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>50}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>11}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "India"=>10, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/687196"], "description"=>"<p>Decision Model to predict patient load, human resource and recurrent cost to a hospital.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recurrent"], "article_id"=>357683, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Shankar Prinja", "Pankaj Bahuguna", "Andrew D. Pinto", "Atul Sharma", "Gursimer Bharaj", "Vishal Kumar", "Jaya Prasad Tripathy", "Manmeet Kaur", "Rajesh Kumar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decision_Model_to_predict_patient_load_human_resource_and_recurrent_cost_to_a_hospital_/357683", "title"=>"Decision Model to predict patient load, human resource and recurrent cost to a hospital.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-27 02:08:03"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/687457"], "description"=>"<p>*Feasibility evaluation matrix adapted from Hotchkiss D et al (1999) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362#pone.0030362-Hotchkiss1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["universalizing"], "article_id"=>357941, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Shankar Prinja", "Pankaj Bahuguna", "Andrew D. Pinto", "Atul Sharma", "Gursimer Bharaj", "Vishal Kumar", "Jaya Prasad Tripathy", "Manmeet Kaur", "Rajesh Kumar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Feasibility_of_universalizing_health_care_using_a_model_of_public_and_private_sector_delivery_in_India_/357941", "title"=>"Feasibility<sup>*</sup> of universalizing health care using a model of public and private sector delivery in India.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-27 02:12:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/687414"], "description"=>"<p>Annual Cost and Health Sector Budgetary Allocation for Universalizing Health Care in India.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["budgetary", "allocation", "universalizing"], "article_id"=>357894, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Shankar Prinja", "Pankaj Bahuguna", "Andrew D. Pinto", "Atul Sharma", "Gursimer Bharaj", "Vishal Kumar", "Jaya Prasad Tripathy", "Manmeet Kaur", "Rajesh Kumar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_Cost_and_Health_Sector_Budgetary_Allocation_for_Universalizing_Health_Care_in_India_/357894", "title"=>"Annual Cost and Health Sector Budgetary Allocation for Universalizing Health Care in India.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-27 02:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350378", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350383"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Introduction</h3><p>As high out-of-pocket healthcare expenses pose heavy financial burden on the families, Government of India is considering a variety of financing and delivery options to universalize health care services. Hence, an estimate of the cost of delivering universal health care services is needed.</p> <h3>Methods</h3><p>We developed a model to estimate recurrent and annual costs for providing health services through a mix of public and private providers in Chandigarh located in northern India. Necessary health services required to deliver good quality care were defined by the Indian Public Health Standards. National Sample Survey data was utilized to estimate disease burden. In addition, morbidity and treatment data was collected from two secondary and two tertiary care hospitals. The unit cost of treatment was estimated from the published literature. For diseases where data on treatment cost was not available, we collected data on standard treatment protocols and cost of care from local health providers.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>We estimate that the cost of universal health care delivery through the existing mix of public and private health institutions would be INR 1713 (USD 38, 95%CI USD 18–73) per person per annum in India. This cost would be 24% higher, if branded drugs are used. Extrapolation of these costs to entire country indicates that Indian government needs to spend 3.8% (2.1%–6.8%) of the GDP for universalizing health care services.</p> <h3>Conclusion</h3><p>The cost of universal health care delivered through a combination of public and private providers is estimated to be INR 1713 per capita per year in India. Important issues such as delivery strategy for ensuring quality, reducing inequities in access, and managing the growth of health care demand need be explored.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["based"], "article_id"=>129242, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Shankar Prinja", "Pankaj Bahuguna", "Andrew D. Pinto", "Atul Sharma", "Gursimer Bharaj", "Vishal Kumar", "Jaya Prasad Tripathy", "Manmeet Kaur", "Rajesh Kumar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>24, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Cost_of_Universal_Health_Care_in_India_A_Model_Based_Estimate/129242", "title"=>"The Cost of Universal Health Care in India: A Model Based Estimate", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-01-27 02:34:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/687526"], "description"=>"<p>*Contributions of orthopaedics and surgery are clubbed in surgical costs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recurrent", "incurred", "opd", "ipd"], "article_id"=>358011, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Shankar Prinja", "Pankaj Bahuguna", "Andrew D. Pinto", "Atul Sharma", "Gursimer Bharaj", "Vishal Kumar", "Jaya Prasad Tripathy", "Manmeet Kaur", "Rajesh Kumar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Specialty_wise_disease_burden_and_recurrent_cost_diagnostic_and_medicines_incurred_to_hospital_for_treatment_on_OPD_and_IPD_basis_/358011", "title"=>"Specialty-wise disease burden and recurrent cost (diagnostic and medicines) incurred to hospital for treatment on OPD and IPD basis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-27 02:13:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/687345"], "description"=>"<p>Efficient population and annual household costs for district hospitals under Indian Public Health Standards, by bed strength, India.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["costs", "hospitals", "indian"], "article_id"=>357823, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Shankar Prinja", "Pankaj Bahuguna", "Andrew D. Pinto", "Atul Sharma", "Gursimer Bharaj", "Vishal Kumar", "Jaya Prasad Tripathy", "Manmeet Kaur", "Rajesh Kumar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030362.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Efficient_population_and_annual_household_costs_for_district_hospitals_under_Indian_Public_Health_Standards_by_bed_strength_India_/357823", "title"=>"Efficient population and annual household costs for district hospitals under Indian Public Health Standards, by bed strength, India.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-27 02:10:23"}

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Relative Metric

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