Infants in Control: Rapid Anticipation of Action Outcomes in a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm
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{"title"=>"Infants in control: Rapid anticipation of action outcomes in a gaze-contingent paradigm", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Quan", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56145277600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jantina", "last_name"=>"Bolhuis", "scopus_author_id"=>"56353882700"}, {"first_name"=>"Constantin A.", "last_name"=>"Rothkopf", "scopus_author_id"=>"15078701200"}, {"first_name"=>"Thorsten", "last_name"=>"Kolling", "scopus_author_id"=>"15725689200"}, {"first_name"=>"Monika", "last_name"=>"Knopf", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003594549"}, {"first_name"=>"Jochen", "last_name"=>"Triesch", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701435912"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857184143", "sgr"=>"84857184143", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0030884", "pmid"=>"22363507", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"364281325"}, "id"=>"543e5f4e-7230-386c-83c4-ed8e55f5089d", "abstract"=>"Infants' poor motor abilities limit their interaction with their environment and render studying infant cognition notoriously difficult. Exceptions are eye movements, which reach high accuracy early, but generally do not allow manipulation of the physical environment. In this study, real-time eye tracking is used to put 6- and 8-month-old infants in direct control of their visual surroundings to study the fundamental problem of discovery of agency, i.e. the ability to infer that certain sensory events are caused by one's own actions. We demonstrate that infants quickly learn to perform eye movements to trigger the appearance of new stimuli and that they anticipate the consequences of their actions in as few as 3 trials. Our findings show that infants can rapidly discover new ways of controlling their environment. We suggest that gaze-contingent paradigms offer effective new ways for studying many aspects of infant learning and cognition in an interactive fashion and provide new opportunities for behavioral training and treatment in infants.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/infants-control-rapid-anticipation-action-outcomes-gazecontingent-paradigm", "reader_count"=>90, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>7, "Engineering"=>3, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>52, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>52}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>3, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>2, "Poland"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>4, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/680674"], "description"=>"<p>We found a strong component corresponding to reactive gaze shifts (mean 230 ms, variance 66 ms, explaining 53% of the data), a weaker component for anticipations (mean −204 ms, variance 103 ms, explaining 14% of the data), and a third component of much larger variance covering outliers (mean 219 ms, variance 348 ms, explaining 33% of the data).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gaussian", "fitted"], "article_id"=>351162, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Quan Wang", "Jantina Bolhuis", "Constantin A. Rothkopf", "Thorsten Kolling", "Monika Knopf", "Jochen Triesch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030884.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_component_Gaussian_mixture_model_fitted_to_reaction_times_/351162", "title"=>"Three-component Gaussian mixture model fitted to reaction times.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-17 00:19:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/680754"], "description"=>"<p>Design and timing of Experiment 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "pediatrics and child health"], "article_id"=>351239, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Quan Wang", "Jantina Bolhuis", "Constantin A. Rothkopf", "Thorsten Kolling", "Monika Knopf", "Jochen Triesch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030884.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Design_and_timing_of_Experiment_2_/351239", "title"=>"Design and timing of Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-17 00:20:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/680821"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Click interval distribution of infants. (B) Click interval distribution of adult solvers (red) and non-solvers (black). (C) Pattern count of infants, adult solvers and adult non-solvers (blue: functioning-button pattern, red: non-functioning button pattern).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "pediatrics and child health"], "article_id"=>351312, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Quan Wang", "Jantina Bolhuis", "Constantin A. Rothkopf", "Thorsten Kolling", "Monika Knopf", "Jochen Triesch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030884.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Experiment_2_/351312", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-17 00:21:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348249"], "description"=>"<div><p>Infants' poor motor abilities limit their interaction with their environment and render studying infant cognition notoriously difficult. Exceptions are eye movements, which reach high accuracy early, but generally do not allow manipulation of the physical environment. In this study, real-time eye tracking is used to put 6- and 8-month-old infants in direct control of their visual surroundings to study the fundamental problem of discovery of agency, i.e. the ability to infer that certain sensory events are caused by one's own actions. We demonstrate that infants quickly learn to perform eye movements to trigger the appearance of new stimuli and that they anticipate the consequences of their actions in as few as 3 trials. Our findings show that infants can rapidly discover new ways of controlling their environment. We suggest that gaze-contingent paradigms offer effective new ways for studying many aspects of infant learning and cognition in an interactive fashion and provide new opportunities for behavioral training and treatment in infants.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infants", "anticipation", "outcomes", "gaze-contingent", "paradigm"], "article_id"=>128861, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Quan Wang", "Jantina Bolhuis", "Constantin A. Rothkopf", "Thorsten Kolling", "Monika Knopf", "Jochen Triesch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030884", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Infants_in_Control_Rapid_Anticipation_of_Action_Outcomes_in_a_Gaze_Contingent_Paradigm/128861", "title"=>"Infants in Control: Rapid Anticipation of Action Outcomes in a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2012-02-17 02:27:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/680312"], "description"=>"<p>Design and timing of Experiment 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "pediatrics and child health"], "article_id"=>350798, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Quan Wang", "Jantina Bolhuis", "Constantin A. Rothkopf", "Thorsten Kolling", "Monika Knopf", "Jochen Triesch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030884.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Design_and_timing_of_Experiment_1_/350798", "title"=>"Design and timing of Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-17 00:13:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/680439"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Average click counts of 6-month-olds and 8-month-olds. (B) Average fixation durations on image area and button area. (C) Average reaction time as a function of click number (error bars indicate s.e.m.). Only the first 15 clicks were plotted, since only a minority of infants performed 16 or more clicks. Infants' average reaction time after their first click is 277 ms, but becomes much faster by the third click. A linear curve (y = −7.53*x+218.77, ) and an inverse curve (y = 123.5/x+158.35, ) were fitted to infants' average reaction times.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "pediatrics and child health"], "article_id"=>350923, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Quan Wang", "Jantina Bolhuis", "Constantin A. Rothkopf", "Thorsten Kolling", "Monika Knopf", "Jochen Triesch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030884.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Experiment_1_/350923", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-17 00:15:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/680522"], "description"=>"<p>Each subplot represents one individual. Six-month-olds are plotted in blue, eight-month-old in red. Dashed horizontal lines are the anticipation threshold of 200 ms. There was no systematic difference between age or gender groups. Four representative individuals were selected and ordered based on their average reaction times. (A) Very frequent anticipations. (B) Frequent ancitipations. (C) Few anticipations. (D) No anticipations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["times"], "article_id"=>351012, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Quan Wang", "Jantina Bolhuis", "Constantin A. Rothkopf", "Thorsten Kolling", "Monika Knopf", "Jochen Triesch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030884.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_reaction_times_in_Experiment_1_/351012", "title"=>"Individual reaction times in Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-17 00:16:52"}

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Relative Metric

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