To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery
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{"title"=>"To Fish or not to Fish: Factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tim M.", "last_name"=>"Daw", "scopus_author_id"=>"8208327400"}, {"first_name"=>"Joshua E.", "last_name"=>"Cinner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507148162"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy R.", "last_name"=>"McClanahan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005454038"}, {"first_name"=>"Katrina", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404382278"}, {"first_name"=>"Selina M.", "last_name"=>"Stead", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003698248"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas A.J.", "last_name"=>"Graham", "scopus_author_id"=>"8503393500"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Maina", "scopus_author_id"=>"8979455900"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84856793566", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0031460", "pui"=>"364223352", "sgr"=>"84856793566", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22348090"}, "id"=>"5ed95f5c-e538-3859-a9e5-40f8d68ac412", "abstract"=>"Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance of understanding natural resource-based livelihoods in the context of the wider economy and society.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fish-not-fish-factors-multiple-scales-affecting-artisanal-fishers-readiness-exit-declining-fishery", "reader_count"=>263, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>65, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>73, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>50, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>65, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>73, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>50, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>19, "Environmental Science"=>115, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>74, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>29, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>29}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>11}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>74}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>19}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>115}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Tanzania"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Madagascar"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>4, "Bangladesh"=>1, "Mozambique"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>3, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>4, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>17}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683981"], "description"=>"<p>Sample size in each country give beneath the bar. Mada. = Madagascar, TZ = Tanz., Maur. = Mauritius, Seych = Seychelles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exiting", "fishery", "studied"], "article_id"=>354462, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Tim M. Daw", "Joshua E. Cinner", "Timothy R. McClanahan", "Katrina Brown", "Selina M. Stead", "Nicholas A. J. Graham", "Joseph Maina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031460.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thresholds_for_exiting_the_fishery_in_each_studied_country_/354462", "title"=>"Thresholds for exiting the fishery in each studied country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-10 01:14:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/684042"], "description"=>"<p>Based on the responses of 599 Western Indian Ocean fishers. Splits were based potentially on all variables described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031460#pone-0031460-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. Sites are coloured by country (Blue – Seychelles, Green – Mauritius, Purple – Tanzania, Black – Kenya, Red – Madagascar). Numbers of fishers opting to stay (left) and exit (right) are shown at each branch. Fishers meeting the split conditions [e.g. material style of life (MSL)<−0.08] pass down to the next left-hand branch.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evaluating", "decisions", "studied", "fisheries", "hypothetical", "halving"], "article_id"=>354523, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Tim M. Daw", "Joshua E. Cinner", "Timothy R. McClanahan", "Katrina Brown", "Selina M. Stead", "Nicholas A. J. Graham", "Joseph Maina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031460.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Classification_tree_analysis_evaluating_stay_and_exit_decisions_in_the_studied_fisheries_in_response_to_a_hypothetical_halving_of_catch_value_/354523", "title"=>"Classification-tree analysis evaluating stay and exit decisions in the studied fisheries in response to a hypothetical halving of catch value.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-10 01:15:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/684283"], "description"=>"<p>Factors highlighted as affecting fishery exit decisions in the literature, and corresponding variables used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["highlighted", "affecting", "fishery", "decisions", "corresponding", "variables"], "article_id"=>354764, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Tim M. Daw", "Joshua E. Cinner", "Timothy R. McClanahan", "Katrina Brown", "Selina M. Stead", "Nicholas A. J. Graham", "Joseph Maina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031460.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factors_highlighted_as_affecting_fishery_exit_decisions_in_the_literature_and_corresponding_variables_used_in_this_study_/354764", "title"=>"Factors highlighted as affecting fishery exit decisions in the literature, and corresponding variables used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-10 01:19:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/684167"], "description"=>"<p>Lines indicate significant relationships (p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fishers", "site-scale"], "article_id"=>354650, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Tim M. Daw", "Joshua E. Cinner", "Timothy R. McClanahan", "Katrina Brown", "Selina M. Stead", "Nicholas A. J. Graham", "Joseph Maina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031460.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_percentage_of_fishers_at_a_site_who_would_exit_in_response_to_a_50_catch_decline_and_site_scale_variables_/354650", "title"=>"Relationship between percentage of fishers at a site who would exit in response to a 50% catch decline and site-scale variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-10 01:17:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/684238"], "description"=>"<p>Factor loadings of country-level material style of life scores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["loadings", "country-level"], "article_id"=>354725, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Tim M. Daw", "Joshua E. Cinner", "Timothy R. McClanahan", "Katrina Brown", "Selina M. Stead", "Nicholas A. J. Graham", "Joseph Maina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031460.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factor_loadings_of_country_level_material_style_of_life_scores_/354725", "title"=>"Factor loadings of country-level material style of life scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-10 01:18:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348374", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348426", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348474", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348536", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348616", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348686", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/348749"], "description"=>"<div><p>Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance of understanding natural resource-based", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors", "scales", "affecting", "artisanal", "readiness", "declining", "fishery"], "article_id"=>128886, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Tim M. Daw", "Joshua E. Cinner", "Timothy R. McClanahan", "Katrina Brown", "Selina M. Stead", "Nicholas A. J. Graham", "Joseph Maina"], "doi"=>[nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>37, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/To_Fish_or_Not_to_Fish_Factors_at_Multiple_Scales_Affecting_Artisanal_Fishers_Readiness_to_Exit_a_Declining_Fishery/128886", "title"=>"To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-02-10 02:28:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683888"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers correspond to site numbers in Table S2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences"], "article_id"=>354372, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Tim M. Daw", "Joshua E. Cinner", "Timothy R. McClanahan", "Katrina Brown", "Selina M. Stead", "Nicholas A. J. Graham", "Joseph Maina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031460.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_of_study_sites_/354372", "title"=>"Locations of study sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-10 01:12:52"}

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Relative Metric

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