Genetic Structure, Nestmate Recognition and Behaviour of Two Cryptic Species of the Invasive Big-Headed Ant Pheidole megacephala
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{"title"=>"Genetic structure, nestmate recognition and behaviour of two cryptic species of the invasive big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Denis", "last_name"=>"Fournier", "scopus_author_id"=>"35483851200"}, {"first_name"=>"Maurice", "last_name"=>"Tindo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603242422"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Kenne", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602545828"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul Serge", "last_name"=>"Mbenoun Masse", "scopus_author_id"=>"37761774700"}, {"first_name"=>"Vanessa", "last_name"=>"van Bossche", "scopus_author_id"=>"55021071000"}, {"first_name"=>"Eliane", "last_name"=>"de Coninck", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801394974"}, {"first_name"=>"Serge", "last_name"=>"Aron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003455717"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857419587", "sgr"=>"84857419587", "pui"=>"364320918", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22371822", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0031480"}, "id"=>"e5d23972-2c03-384c-86a8-91a12556406f", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Biological invasions are recognized as a major cause of biodiversity decline and have considerable impact on the economy and human health. The African big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is considered one of the world's most harmful invasive species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand its ecological and demographic features, we combined behavioural (aggression tests), chemical (quantitative and qualitative analyses of cuticular lipids) and genetic (mitochondrial divergence and polymorphism of DNA microsatellite markers) data obtained for eight populations in Cameroon. Molecular data revealed two cryptic species of P. megacephala, one inhabiting urban areas and the other rainforests. Urban populations belong to the same phylogenetic group than those introduced in Australia and in other parts of the world. Behavioural analyses show that the eight populations sampled make up four mutually aggressive supercolonies. The maximum distance between nests from the same supercolony was 49 km and the closest distance between two nests belonging to two different supercolonies was 46 m. The genetic data and chemical analyses confirmed the behavioural tests as all of the nests were correctly assigned to their supercolony. Genetic diversity appears significantly greater in Africa than in introduced populations in Australia; by contrast, urban and Australian populations are characterized by a higher chemical diversity than rainforest ones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our study shows that populations of P. megacephala in Cameroon adopt a unicolonial social structure, like invasive populations in Australia. However, the size of the supercolonies appears several orders of magnitude smaller in Africa. This implies competition between African supercolonies and explains why they persist over evolutionary time scales.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetic-structure-nestmate-recognition-behaviour-two-cryptic-species-invasive-bigheaded-ant-pheidole", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/346570", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/346610", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/346660"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Biological invasions are recognized as a major cause of biodiversity decline and have considerable impact on the economy and human health. The African big-headed ant <em>Pheidole megacephala</em> is considered one of the world's most harmful invasive species.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>To better understand its ecological and demographic features, we combined behavioural (aggression tests), chemical (quantitative and qualitative analyses of cuticular lipids) and genetic (mitochondrial divergence and polymorphism of DNA microsatellite markers) data obtained for eight populations in Cameroon. Molecular data revealed two cryptic species of <em>P. megacephala</em>, one inhabiting urban areas and the other rainforests. Urban populations belong to the same phylogenetic group than those introduced in Australia and in other parts of the world. Behavioural analyses show that the eight populations sampled make up four mutually aggressive supercolonies. The maximum distance between nests from the same supercolony was 49 km and the closest distance between two nests belonging to two different supercolonies was 46 m. The genetic data and chemical analyses confirmed the behavioural tests as all of the nests were correctly assigned to their supercolony. Genetic diversity appears significantly greater in Africa than in introduced populations in Australia; by contrast, urban and Australian populations are characterized by a higher chemical diversity than rainforest ones.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Overall, our study shows that populations of <em>P. megacephala</em> in Cameroon adopt a unicolonial social structure, like invasive populations in Australia. However, the size of the supercolonies appears several orders of magnitude smaller in Africa. This implies competition between African supercolonies and explains why they persist over evolutionary time scales.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nestmate", "behaviour", "cryptic", "invasive", "big-headed", "ant"], "article_id"=>128510, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genetic_Structure_Nestmate_Recognition_and_Behaviour_of_Two_Cryptic_Species_of_the_Invasive_Big_Headed_Ant_Pheidole_megacephala_/128510", "title"=>"Genetic Structure, Nestmate Recognition and Behaviour of Two Cryptic Species of the Invasive Big-Headed Ant <em>Pheidole megacephala</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:21:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678128"], "description"=>"<p>A, Locations of the two ecological zones (+) and of the eight populations collected (−). YM: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l'Innovation; YN: North of Yaoundé; YS: South of Yaoundé; YU: Université de Yaoundé I; CA, CB and CC: populations A, B and C in the Campo Forest Reserve; AK: Akok. B, Locations of the nests within each of the eight populations. Populations YM, YN, YS and YU correspond to <i>P. megacephala</i> var. 1 and populations AK, CA, CB and CC to <i>P. megacephala</i> var. 2. Nests belonging to the same supercolony (cf. Results section) are indicated by the same symbol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology"], "article_id"=>348617, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_site_and_nest_locations_/348617", "title"=>"Study site and nest locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:23:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678213"], "description"=>"<p>The percentage bootstrap supports are shown above the branches for the major groups. GeneBank accession numbers, population or supercolonies are indicated between brackets. Australian, South African and Malagasy samples refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480#pone.0031480-Fournier1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480#pone.0031480-Fournier2\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480#pone.0031480-Smith1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>, respectively. Mauritian samples come from personal collection (DF). Sequences for <i>P. sexspinosa</i>, <i>P. xerophyla</i> and <i>Aphaenogaster senili</i>s are taken from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480#pone.0031480-Moreau1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outgroup"], "article_id"=>348713, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neighbour_joining_tree_of_Pheidole_megacephala_from_different_localities_the_sister_species_Pheidole_sexspinosa_and_P_xerophila_and_the_outgroup_Aphaenogaster_senilis_based_on_COI_/348713", "title"=>"Neighbour-joining tree of <i>Pheidole megacephala</i> from different localities, the sister species <i>Pheidole sexspinosa</i> and <i>P. xerophila</i>, and the outgroup <i>Aphaenogaster senilis</i> based on COI.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:25:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678302"], "description"=>"<p>Box-plots indicate median (horizontal line), mean (diamond), interquartile range (box) and minimum and maximum values (whiskers). Nests are assigned to their population (A) or supercolony (B). (AK: Akok; CA, CB and CC: Campo Forest Reserve; YM, YN, YS and YU: Yaoundé and its periphery).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intra-", "inter-group", "aggressiveness"], "article_id"=>348788, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_intra_and_inter_group_aggressiveness_between_P_megacephala_workers_/348788", "title"=>"Average intra- and inter-group aggressiveness between <i>P. megacephala</i> workers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:26:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678404"], "description"=>"<p>A: <i>ΔK</i> (a measurement of the rate of change in the structure likelihood function) values as a function of <i>K</i>, the number of putative supercolonies. In this case, <i>K</i> = 2. B: Graphical representation of the data set for the most likely <i>K</i> = 2, where each colour corresponds to a suggested cluster and each individual is represented by a vertical bar. The populations are indicated in the <i>X</i>-axis (AK: Akok; CA, CB and CC: Campo Forest Reserve; YM, YN, YS and YU: Yaoundé and its periphery). The <i>Y</i>-axis represents the probability for which an individual will be assigned to each cluster.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology"], "article_id"=>348892, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_cluster_analysis_/348892", "title"=>"Bayesian cluster analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:28:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678535"], "description"=>"<p>A. <i>ΔK</i> (the standardized second order rate of change of ln P(<i>X</i>|<i>K</i>)) is plotted as a function of <i>K</i>. B. Proportional membership of <i>P. megacephala</i> workers to genetic clusters (<i>K</i>) for <i>K</i> = 2. Each vertical bar represents an individual whose estimated proportion of membership to either cluster (Y-axis) is indicated by the two different shades. Black lines separate individuals from different nests. Colours correspond to genetic clusters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clusters", "populations"], "article_id"=>349025, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inference_of_the_number_of_genetic_clusters_K_in_populations_of_P_megacephala_var_1_i_e_urban_top_and_P_megacephala_var_2_i_e_rainforest_bottom_/349025", "title"=>"Inference of the number of genetic clusters (<i>K</i>) in populations of <i>P. megacephala</i> var. 1 (<i>i.e.</i> urban) (top) and <i>P. megacephala</i> var. 2 (<i>i.e.</i> rainforest) (bottom).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:30:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678636"], "description"=>"<p>The differentiation is illustrated by a factor map of the two first axes of the canonical discriminant analysis on the relative proportions of cuticular lipids. Functions one and two account for 98.7% and 99.7% of the total variability among populations and supercolonies, respectively. Only group centroids are plotted on figure A. <i>P. megacephala</i> var. 1: populations YM, YN, YS, YU and supercolonies SC-1, SC2; <i>P. megacephala</i> var. 2: populations AK, CA, CB, CC and supercolonies SC-3, SC-4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differentiation", "populations", "supercolonies"], "article_id"=>349124, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chemical_differentiation_between_the_seven_populations_A_and_the_four_supercolonies_B_/349124", "title"=>"Chemical differentiation between the seven populations (A) and the four supercolonies (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:32:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678748"], "description"=>"<p>Lower case letters link groups that are not statistically distinguishable using post-hoc tests (Tukey's HSD) at <i>α</i> = 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allelic", "richness", "microsatellites", "loci", "samples", "cameroon", "africa", "australia"], "article_id"=>349230, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Box_plot_of_the_allelic_richness_estimated_at_eight_microsatellites_loci_for_samples_collected_from_Cameroon_P_megacephala_var_1_South_Africa_40_and_Australia_34_/349230", "title"=>"Box-plot of the allelic richness estimated at eight microsatellites loci for samples collected from Cameroon (<i>P. megacephala</i> var. 1), South Africa [<b>40</b>] and Australia [<b>34</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:33:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678817"], "description"=>"†<p>Mean ± se population genetic statistics over eight loci. <i>A</i>: number of alleles; <i>Ar</i>: allelic richness; <i>H</i>: gene diversity; <i>f</i>: inbreeding coefficient; <i>r</i>: relatedness; <i>Fst</i>: Wright's measure of population subdivision; <i>I</i>: Nei index; <i>E</i>: Euclidean distance. Statistical comparisons between ecological zones were conducted using non-parametric, Mann-Whitney tests (different letters indicate significant differences).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nests", "descriptive", "se", "analyses", "cameroonian", "populations", "invasive", "ant"], "article_id"=>349297, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_nests_sampled_location_and_descriptive_population_statistics_mean_se_and_95_confidence_interval_for_genetic_and_chemical_analyses_of_eight_Cameroonian_populations_of_the_invasive_ant_P_megacephala_/349297", "title"=>"Number of nests sampled, location and descriptive population statistics (mean ± se and [95% confidence interval]) for genetic and chemical analyses of eight Cameroonian populations of the invasive ant <i>P. megacephala</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:34:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678853"], "description"=>"<p>SC-1: nests YM-13, YM-18, YM-19, YN-22, YN-23, YU-01, YU-02, YU-12, YU-24, YU-40, YU-41, YU-42, YU-43.</p><p>SC-2: nests YS-31, YS-32, YS-33, YS-34, YS-35, YS-36, YS-37, YS-38, YU-03, YU-04, YU-05, YU-06, YU-07, YU-08, YU-09, YU-10, YU-11, YU-25, YU-26, YU-27, YU-39, YU-44.</p><p>SC-3: nests CA-52, CA-53, CA-54, CA-55, CA-56, CA-57, CA-58, CA-59, CA-60, CA-61, CA-62, CA-63, CA-64, CA-66, CA-67.</p><p>SC-4: nests AK-86, AK-88, AK-91, AK-92, CB-70, CB-71, CB-72, CB-74, CB-75, CB-76, CB-77, CB-79, CC-80, CC-83.</p><p><i>A</i>: number of alleles; <i>Ar</i>: allelic richness; <i>H</i>: gene diversity; <i>f</i>: inbreeding coefficient; <i>Fst</i>: Wright's measure of population subdivision; <i>I</i>: Nei index; <i>E</i>: Euclidean distance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["se", "analyses", "supercolonies", "defined", "behavioural"], "article_id"=>349338, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistics_mean_177_se_and_95_confidence_interval_for_genetic_and_chemical_analyses_of_the_four_supercolonies_defined_from_behavioural_assays_/349338", "title"=>"Statistics (mean ± se and [95% confidence interval]) for genetic and chemical analyses of the four supercolonies defined from behavioural assays.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:35:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678897"], "description"=>"<p>Nests were assigned to their population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hierarchical", "analyses", "molecular", "variance", "evaluating"], "article_id"=>349380, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_hierarchical_analyses_of_molecular_variance_AMOVAs_evaluating_the_amount_of_genetic_and_chemical_variance_between_and_within_groups_/349380", "title"=>"Results of the hierarchical analyses of molecular variance (AMOVAs) evaluating the amount of genetic and chemical variance between and within groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:36:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678946"], "description"=>"<p>Results of the hierarchical analyses of molecular variance (AMOVAs) evaluating the amount of genetic and chemical variance between and within supercolonies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hierarchical", "analyses", "molecular", "variance", "evaluating"], "article_id"=>349428, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_hierarchical_analyses_of_molecular_variance_AMOVAs_evaluating_the_amount_of_genetic_and_chemical_variance_between_and_within_supercolonies_/349428", "title"=>"Results of the hierarchical analyses of molecular variance (AMOVAs) evaluating the amount of genetic and chemical variance between and within supercolonies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/678982"], "description"=>"<p>Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) with country as grouping factor (Cameroon, <i>n</i> = 304; Australia, <i>n</i> = 419; South Africa, <i>n</i> = 20).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["molecular", "variance", "grouping"], "article_id"=>349467, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Denis Fournier", "Maurice Tindo", "Martin Kenne", "Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse", "Vanessa Van Bossche", "Eliane De Coninck", "Serge Aron"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031480.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_analysis_of_molecular_variance_AMOVA_with_country_as_grouping_factor_Cameroon_n_304_Australia_n_419_South_Africa_n_20_/349467", "title"=>"Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) with country as grouping factor (Cameroon, <i>n</i> = 304; Australia, <i>n</i> = 419; South Africa, <i>n</i> = 20).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-21 02:37:47"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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