The Earliest Evidence of Holometabolan Insect Pupation in Conifer Wood
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{"title"=>"The earliest evidence of holometabolan insect pupation in conifer wood", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Leif", "last_name"=>"Tapanila", "scopus_author_id"=>"14053071100"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric M.", "last_name"=>"Roberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402580569"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"364268102", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22355387", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0031668", "sgr"=>"84857098290", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857098290"}, "id"=>"bed5a09f-2e0b-341d-afcf-5e9626793175", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The pre-Jurassic record of terrestrial wood borings is poorly resolved, despite body fossil evidence of insect diversification among xylophilic clades starting in the late Paleozoic. Detailed analysis of borings in petrified wood provides direct evidence of wood utilization by invertebrate animals, which typically comprises feeding behaviors.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a U-shaped boring in petrified wood from the Late Triassic Chinle Formation of southern Utah that demonstrates a strong linkage between insect ontogeny and conifer wood resources. Xylokrypta durossi new ichnogenus and ichnospecies is a large excavation in wood that is backfilled with partially digested xylem, creating a secluded chamber. The tracemaker exited the chamber by way of a small vertical shaft. This sequence of behaviors is most consistent with the entrance of a larva followed by pupal quiescence and adult emergence--hallmarks of holometabolous insect ontogeny. Among the known body fossil record of Triassic insects, cupedid beetles (Coleoptera: Archostemata) are deemed the most plausible tracemakers of Xylokrypta, based on their body size and modern xylobiotic lifestyle.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This oldest record of pupation in fossil wood provides an alternative interpretation to borings once regarded as evidence for Triassic bees. Instead Xylokrypta suggests that early archostematan beetles were leaders in exploiting wood substrates well before modern clades of xylophages arose in the late Mesozoic.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/earliest-evidence-holometabolan-insect-pupation-conifer-wood", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/682658"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Map showing Wolverine Petrified Forest (WPF), Utah and Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO), Arizona. Modified after Blakey <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668#pone.0031668-Blakey1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>. <b>B.</b> Stratigraphy after <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668#pone.0031668-Ash2\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668#pone.0031668-Lucas1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>; asterisks denote the stratigraphic position of <i>Xylokrypta</i> specimens.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphy", "colorado", "plateau"], "article_id"=>353143, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Paleogeographic_map_and_stratigraphy_of_Colorado_Plateau_region_during_Late_Triassic_/353143", "title"=>"Paleogeographic map and stratigraphy of Colorado Plateau region during Late Triassic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:02:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/682871"], "description"=>"<p>All images of holotype-bearing log UMNH PB 1915, except <b>C</b>, IMNH-PB-055/1011. <b>A.</b> Xylem cylinder with several series of <i>Xylokrypta</i> preserved at various depths of erosion; red arrow marks proximal aperture, blue arrow marks distal opening. Scale bar = 2 cm. <b>B.</b> Detail of <b>A</b>, with inner bark preserved adjacent proximal apertures at top of image. Scale bar = 1 cm. <b>C.</b> Multiple series of deeply eroded <i>Xylokrypta</i>. Scale bar intervals = 1 cm. <b>D.</b> Two relatively uneroded <i>Xylokrypta</i> with proximal (right) and distal (left) apertures and central portion of chamber concealed below surface of wood. Vertical line marks edge of inner bark preserved at left side of image. Scale bar = 5 mm. <b>E.</b> Distal part of eroded <i>Xylokrypta</i> preserving light-colored frass fill of the distal shaft surrounded by dark-colored frass and hematite of the proximal and chamber cavity. Scale bar = 5 mm. <b>F.</b> Detail of <b>E</b> showing spiraled organization of coarse tracheid fibers comprising the distal shaft fill. Scale bar = 1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["views", "triassic", "petrified", "conifer"], "article_id"=>353361, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_External_surface_views_of_Xylokrypta_in_Late_Triassic_petrified_conifer_wood_/353361", "title"=>"External surface views of <i>Xylokrypta</i> in Late Triassic petrified conifer wood.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:03:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683150"], "description"=>"<p>Transverse (<b>A–F</b>) and tangential (<b>G</b>) sections of the wood substrate. All images oriented with proximal side of boring on the right of image. <b>A.</b> Holotype, composite photomicrograph just off-center from midline of boring. Frass and hematite-after-pyrite (<b>py</b>) line and fill the upper chamber and proximal shaft; quartz (<b>qz</b>) and calcite (<b>cc</b>) spar fill the center of the chamber. Margin of adjacent <i>Xylokrypta</i> (as in <b>F</b>) marked by arrow. <b>B.</b> Slab section through midline of boring, bisecting proximal and distal apertures. <b>C, D.</b> Holotype, slab sections of boring in making thin section in <b>A</b>. Image <b>C</b> is photo-reversed to match counterpart in <b>D</b>. <b>E.</b> Holotype, detail photomicrograph of <b>A</b> showing fragmented tracheids found under the word “frass”. <b>F.</b> Slab section showing outer portion of chambers of adjacent <i>Xylokrypta</i> borings. Holotype is the boring on the left. <b>G.</b> Slab section just below wood surface. All scale bars = 5 mm, except <b>E</b>, which is 50 microns.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["umnh", "pb"], "article_id"=>353643, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sections_of_Xylokrypta_from_UMNH_PB_1915_/353643", "title"=>"Sections of <i>Xylokrypta</i> from UMNH PB 1915.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:05:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683311"], "description"=>"<p>Oblique (<b>A</b>), transverse (<b>B</b>), tangential (<b>C</b>), and radial (<b>D</b>) views relative to wood substrate. <b>E.</b> Tangential view of typical <i>Xylokrypta</i> series. Long dash corresponds to transverse view in <b>B</b>, and short dashed line corresponds to radial view in <b>D</b>. <b>F.</b> Orientation of <i>Xylokrypta</i> series on wood cylinder. Decorticated wood reveals central chamber of <i>Xylokrypta</i>, which remains concealed if outermost xylem or inner bark are preserved (top left). <b>Abbreviations: pa</b>, proximal aperture; <b>ps</b>, proximal shaft; <b>da</b>, distal aperture; <b>ds</b>, distal shaft; <b>e</b>, encrustation of hematite-after-pyrite. Planes on cube in <b>A</b> marked <b>R</b>, radial; <b>Ta</b>, tangential; <b>Tr</b>, transverse.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>353813, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_Xylokrypta_boring_/353813", "title"=>"Model of <i>Xylokrypta</i> boring.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:06:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683452"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Apertures containing fill. <b>B.</b> Series of <i>Xylokrypta</i> with brown lining and sparitized or hollow chambers. <b>C.</b> Cross section of boring showing lunate spar at center of boring. All scale bar intervals = 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["photographs", "pefo"], "article_id"=>353943, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Field_photographs_of_Xylokrypta_in_PEFO_specimen_/353943", "title"=>"Field photographs of <i>Xylokrypta</i> in PEFO specimen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683590"], "description"=>"<p>Borings concentrated along longitudinal furrow. Scale bar at lower right is 10 cm, with 1 cm increments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pefo", "specimen", "containing", "borings", "diagnosed"], "article_id"=>354078, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composite_field_photograph_of_PEFO_log_specimen_containing_borings_diagnosed_here_as_Xylokrypta_/354078", "title"=>"Composite field photograph of PEFO log specimen containing borings diagnosed here as <i>Xylokrypta</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:07:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683646"], "description"=>"<p>Minimum (−) and maximum (+) dimensions from individual taxa connected by grey line. Stippled field denotes diameter range of distal aperture in <i>Xylokrypta</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["width", "21", "cupedid", "beetle"], "article_id"=>354133, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_and_width_measurements_of_21_species_of_cupedid_beetle_Archostemata_Cupedidae_/354133", "title"=>"Length and width measurements of 21 species of cupedid beetle (Archostemata: Cupedidae).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:08:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683693"], "description"=>"<p>All measurements in mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["borings", "holotype", "umnh", "pb"], "article_id"=>354183, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphometry_of_Xylokrypta_borings_from_holotype_specimen_UMNH_PB_1915_/354183", "title"=>"Morphometry of <i>Xylokrypta</i> borings from holotype specimen, UMNH PB 1915.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:08:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/683722"], "description"=>"<p>Taxa in bold have dimensions that overlap with the distal aperture and chamber size of <i>Xylokrypta</i>. All measurements in mm. Asterisk denotes that the dimension was extrapolated from length∶width ratio on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668#pone-0031668-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>. Beetle taxa from Carnian <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668#pone.0031668-Neboiss1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668#pone.0031668-Tillyard1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a> and Ladinian–Carnian <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668#pone.0031668-Ponomarenko2\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a> deposits.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["triassic", "cupedid", "beetles"], "article_id"=>354213, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Leif Tapanila", "Eric M. Roberts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031668.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphometry_of_Triassic_cupedid_beetles_Archostemata_Cupedidae_/354213", "title"=>"Morphometry of Triassic cupedid beetles (Archostemata: Cupedidae).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 09:08:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[515, 808, 907, 1032, 1129, 1219, 1316, 1426, 1532, 1602, 1675, 1771, 1798, 1933, 2015, 2088, 2152, 2219, 2280, 2360, 2453, 2503, 2615, 2712, 2807]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geology", "average_usage"=>[448, 650, 756, 859, 939, 1027, 1119, 1218, 1314, 1438, 1538, 1615, 1722, 1816, 1912, 1965, 2097, 2178, 2269, 2322, 2395, 2524, 2564, 2680, 2808, 2891]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[347, 547, 641, 742, 836, 927, 1016, 1099, 1184, 1267, 1348, 1418, 1484, 1555, 1631, 1705, 1788, 1843, 1917, 1985, 2052, 2115, 2190, 2258, 2333]}]}
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