Behaviour of Solitary Adult Scandinavian Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) when Approached by Humans on Foot
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{"title"=>"Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) when approached by humans on foot", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gro Kvelprud", "last_name"=>"Moen", "scopus_author_id"=>"8879738200"}, {"first_name"=>"Ole Gunnar", "last_name"=>"Støen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55905686700"}, {"first_name"=>"Veronica", "last_name"=>"Sahlén", "scopus_author_id"=>"55022801700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon E.", "last_name"=>"Swenson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102439909"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364311840", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0031699", "pmid"=>"22363710", "sgr"=>"84857401860", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857401860", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"64af8293-2fed-3c83-b2b0-9a1df42770de", "abstract"=>"Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males) GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80%) left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%). Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m) than passive bears (69±47 m), and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/behaviour-solitary-adult-scandinavian-brown-bears-ursus-arctos-approached-humans-foot", "reader_count"=>146, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>14, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>14, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>32, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>94, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>94}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>32}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "United Arab Emirates"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/679448"], "description"=>"<p>Results from the generalised linear mixed model (binomial link function) explaining whether brown bears remained (0) or left (1) their initial site when approached by humans on foot in central Sweden in 2006–2009 (n = 148). Test statistics are given for the model with the lowest value of AIC. The parameter <i>β</i> is the slope, SE denotes the standard error, Z denotes the z-value, and P denotes the p-value for the test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["generalised", "linear", "leaving"], "article_id"=>349937, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Gro Kvelprud Moen", "Ole-Gunnar Støen", "Veronica Sahlén", "Jon E. Swenson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031699.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_from_the_generalised_linear_mixed_model_for_remaining_or_leaving_the_initial_site_/349937", "title"=>"Results from the generalised linear mixed model for remaining or leaving the initial site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-20 02:45:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/679480"], "description"=>"<p>Results from the linear mixed model (Gaussian link function) explaining the flight initiation distance (FID) for brown bears when approached by humans on foot in central Sweden in 2006–2009 (n = 78). Test statistics are given for the model with the lowest value of AIC. The parameter <i>β</i> is the slope, SE denotes the standard error and T denotes the t-value.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["linear", "initiation"], "article_id"=>349969, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Gro Kvelprud Moen", "Ole-Gunnar Støen", "Veronica Sahlén", "Jon E. Swenson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031699.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_from_the_linear_mixed_model_for_flight_initiation_distance_FID_/349969", "title"=>"Results from the linear mixed model for flight initiation distance (FID).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-20 02:46:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/679339"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of flight initiation distance (FID) for passive (circles and full line) and active (triangles and broken line) Scandinavian brown bears approached by humans on foot in central Sweden in 2006–2009 (n = 78), in relation to the age of the bear.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["initiation"], "article_id"=>349829, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Gro Kvelprud Moen", "Ole-Gunnar Støen", "Veronica Sahlén", "Jon E. Swenson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031699.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flight_initiation_distance_FID_in_relation_to_age_of_the_bear_/349829", "title"=>"Flight initiation distance (FID) in relation to age of the bear.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-20 02:43:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/679253"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of flight initiation distance (FID) for passive (circles and full line) and active (triangles and broken line) Scandinavian brown bears approached by humans on foot in central Sweden in 2006–2009 (n = 78), in relation to sighting distance at the initial site (shorter sighting distance indicates more horizontal vegetation cover).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["initiation", "sighting"], "article_id"=>349742, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Gro Kvelprud Moen", "Ole-Gunnar Støen", "Veronica Sahlén", "Jon E. Swenson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031699.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flight_initiation_distance_FID_in_relation_to_sighting_distance_at_the_initial_site_/349742", "title"=>"Flight initiation distance (FID) in relation to sighting distance at the initial site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-02-20 02:42:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/346755"], "description"=>"<div><p>Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (<em>Ursus arctos</em> L.) back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006–2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males) GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80%) left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%). Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m) than passive bears (69±47 m), and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviour", "solitary", "scandinavian", "bears", "approached", "humans"], "article_id"=>128557, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Gro Kvelprud Moen", "Ole-Gunnar Støen", "Veronica Sahlén", "Jon E. Swenson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031699", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Behaviour_of_Solitary_Adult_Scandinavian_Brown_Bears_Ursus_arctos_when_Approached_by_Humans_on_Foot/128557", "title"=>"Behaviour of Solitary Adult Scandinavian Brown Bears (<em>Ursus arctos</em>) when Approached by Humans on Foot", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-02-20 02:22:37"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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