Impact of Carnivory on Human Development and Evolution Revealed by a New Unifying Model of Weaning in Mammals
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{"title"=>"Impact of carnivory on human development and evolution revealed by a new unifying model of weaning in mammals", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elia", "last_name"=>"Psouni", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506739482"}, {"first_name"=>"Axel", "last_name"=>"Janke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006182918"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Garwicz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701634373"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84859972407", "sgr"=>"84859972407", "pui"=>"364660889", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22536316", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0032452"}, "id"=>"9a99ebab-8c1c-31d7-9e3e-5e6c4f7b6504", "abstract"=>"Our large brain, long life span and high fertility are key elements of human evolutionary success and are often thought to have evolved in interplay with tool use, carnivory and hunting. However, the specific impact of carnivory on human evolution, life history and development remains controversial. Here we show in quantitative terms that dietary profile is a key factor influencing time to weaning across a wide taxonomic range of mammals, including humans. In a model encompassing a total of 67 species and genera from 12 mammalian orders, adult brain mass and two dichotomous variables reflecting species differences regarding limb biomechanics and dietary profile, accounted for 75.5%, 10.3% and 3.4% of variance in time to weaning, respectively, together capturing 89.2% of total variance. Crucially, carnivory predicted the time point of early weaning in humans with remarkable precision, yielding a prediction error of less than 5% with a sample of forty-six human natural fertility societies as reference. Hence, carnivory appears to provide both a necessary and sufficient explanation as to why humans wean so much earlier than the great apes. While early weaning is regarded as essentially differentiating the genus Homo from the great apes, its timing seems to be determined by the same limited set of factors in humans as in mammals in general, despite some 90 million years of evolution. Our analysis emphasizes the high degree of similarity of relative time scales in mammalian development and life history across 67 genera from 12 mammalian orders and shows that the impact of carnivory on time to weaning in humans is quantifiable, and critical. Since early weaning yields shorter interbirth intervals and higher rates of reproduction, with profound effects on population dynamics, our findings highlight the emergence of carnivory as a process fundamentally determining human evolution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impact-carnivory-human-development-evolution-revealed-new-unifying-model-weaning-mammals", "reader_count"=>110, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47, "Arts and Humanities"=>8, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>11, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Sports and Recreations"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>7, "Social Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>11}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/650793"], "description"=>"<p>Chronogram based on phylogenetic analysis complemented with phylogenomic data of the species in the present sample (N = 67) (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone.0032452.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone.0032452.s011\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone.0032452.s012\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>; see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). The branch points indicate when in phylogeny different species diverged from each other and a time scale in Ma (Million years ago) is shown at the bottom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relatedness", "evolutionary", "divergence", "times"], "article_id"=>321282, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Medicine", "Developmental Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Elia Psouni", "Axel Janke", "Martin Garwicz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relatedness_and_evolutionary_divergence_times_of_species_in_the_present_sample_/321282", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relatedness and evolutionary divergence times of species in the present sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-18 00:21:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/651044"], "description"=>"<p>To illustrate the importance of the grouping variable ‘dietary profile’ independently of the grouping variable ‘limb biomechanics’, the grade shift shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone-0032452-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>, of about 0.25 units along the Y-axis, has been compensated for by a shift between the left (filled circles; species that can assume plantigrade hindlimb position) and right (open circles; ‘non-plantigrade’ species, which cannot assume plantigrade hindlimb position) Y-axes. In this way, original data rather than values corrected for residual variance can be shown for both groups. Carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous species are shown red (N = 17), blue (N = 23) and green (N = 27), respectively. Double circle: humans. Solid lines: Model II linear regression (reduced major axis) on all species within in each dietary category (independently of limb biomechanics) are shown in matching colors. R<sup>2</sup>- and p-values from the multiple regression analysis described in main text are given in the diagrams. For full model equation see main text. The difference between this R<sup>2</sup>-value and the R<sup>2</sup>-value in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone-0032452-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a> corresponds to the additional amount of variance accounted for by the grouping variable ‘dietary profile’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predictor"], "article_id"=>321540, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Medicine", "Developmental Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Elia Psouni", "Axel Janke", "Martin Garwicz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dietary_profile_is_a_predictor_of_time_to_weaning_/321540", "title"=>"Dietary profile is a predictor of time to weaning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-18 00:25:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/650951"], "description"=>"<p>Time to weaning was plotted as a function of the continuous variable adult brain mass, log (Brain Mass), and the grouping variable ‘limb biomechanics’ (see main text and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and methods</a> for definition; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone.0032452.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>). Filled symbols and solid regression line represent species that can assume a plantigrade standing of the hindlimb (N = 38); open symbols and dashed regression line represent ‘non-plantigrade’ species, in the present sample including digitigrade and unguligrade species and those that have either rudimentary or completely lack external hindlimbs (N = 29). Double circle: humans. The grade shift between the two groups was highly significant. R<sup>2</sup>- and p-values for the multiple regression model are given in the diagram. The difference between this R<sup>2</sup>-value and the R<sup>2</sup>-value in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone-0032452-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a> corresponds to the additional amount of variance accounted for by the grouping variable ‘limb biomechanics’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomechanics", "predictor"], "article_id"=>321449, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Medicine", "Developmental Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Elia Psouni", "Axel Janke", "Martin Garwicz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Limb_biomechanics_is_a_predictor_of_time_to_weaning_/321449", "title"=>"Limb biomechanics is a predictor of time to weaning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-18 00:24:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/650877"], "description"=>"<p>The continuous independent variables ‘female body mass’ and ‘adult brain mass’ were evaluated as potential predictors of time to weaning. Time to weaning (in days post conception; PC) was plotted as a function of female body mass (Body Mass, in grams) and adult brain mass (Brain Mass, in grams), in left and right panels, respectively. Note the log-log scales. Sample is as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone-0032452-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone.0032452.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> (N = 67). Double circle: humans (this value represents the mean value for 46 natural fertility societies; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone-0032452-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5 </a><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone.0032452-Kennedy1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>). Solid line: Model II linear regression (reduced major axis) on all species. R<sup>2</sup>- and p-values are given in the diagrams. R<sup>2</sup>-values indicate amount of variance accounted for by the respective model. Adult brain mass accounted for a larger amount of variance in time to weaning, demonstrating that this parameter is a better predictor of time to weaning than is female body mass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predictor", "weaning"], "article_id"=>321372, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Medicine", "Developmental Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Elia Psouni", "Axel Janke", "Martin Garwicz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_mass_is_a_better_fundamental_predictor_of_time_to_weaning_than_is_female_body_mass_/321372", "title"=>"Brain mass is a better fundamental predictor of time to weaning than is female body mass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-18 00:22:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/651228"], "description"=>"<p>Predictions of time to weaning in humans based exclusively on species with a carnivorous (left panel, red) or a non-carnivorous diets (right panel, blue-green) were compared to a global sample of human natural fertility societies, shown as open circles (N = 46). Note that human Brain Mass is equal for all individual data points, but a scattered plot was used in order for the reader to be able to distinguish different data points with identical time to weaning. Solid colored lines: regression lines illustrating predicted mean values for time to weaning in carnivorous (red) and non-carnivorous (blue-green) species (omnivores and herbivores were pooled; cf. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone-0032452-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>); dashed lines: 90% prediction lines. Long black horizontal line: mean value of time to weaning of the 46 human natural fertility societies; short black lines: +/−1SD <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452#pone.0032452-Kennedy1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>. See main text for prediction of time to weaning in humans based on the full model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["weaning", "humans", "quantitatively", "predictable", "carnivorous"], "article_id"=>321714, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Medicine", "Developmental Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Elia Psouni", "Axel Janke", "Martin Garwicz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_to_weaning_in_humans_is_quantitatively_predictable_from_a_carnivorous_diet_/321714", "title"=>"Time to weaning in humans is quantitatively predictable from a carnivorous diet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-18 00:28:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/334920", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/334990", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335042", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335100", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335158", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335195", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335243", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335277", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335321", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335370", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335464", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/335518"], "description"=>"<div><p>Our large brain, long life span and high fertility are key elements of human evolutionary success and are often thought to have evolved in interplay with tool use, carnivory and hunting. However, the specific impact of carnivory on human evolution, life history and development remains controversial. Here we show in quantitative terms that dietary profile is a key factor influencing time to weaning across a wide taxonomic range of mammals, including humans. In a model encompassing a total of 67 species and genera from 12 mammalian orders, adult brain mass and two dichotomous variables reflecting species differences regarding limb biomechanics and dietary profile, accounted for 75.5%, 10.3% and 3.4% of variance in time to weaning, respectively, together capturing 89.2% of total variance. Crucially, carnivory predicted the time point of early weaning in humans with remarkable precision, yielding a prediction error of less than 5% with a sample of forty-six human natural fertility societies as reference. Hence, carnivory appears to provide both a necessary and sufficient explanation as to why humans wean so much earlier than the great apes. While early weaning is regarded as essentially differentiating the genus <em>Homo</em> from the great apes, its timing seems to be determined by the same limited set of factors in humans as in mammals in general, despite some 90 million years of evolution. Our analysis emphasizes the high degree of similarity of relative time scales in mammalian development and life history across 67 genera from 12 mammalian orders and shows that the impact of carnivory on time to weaning in humans is quantifiable, and critical. Since early weaning yields shorter interbirth intervals and higher rates of reproduction, with profound effects on population dynamics, our findings highlight the emergence of carnivory as a process fundamentally determining human evolution.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["carnivory", "revealed", "unifying", "weaning", "mammals"], "article_id"=>126174, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Medicine", "Developmental Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Elia Psouni", "Axel Janke", "Martin Garwicz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032452.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>33, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impact_of_Carnivory_on_Human_Development_and_Evolution_Revealed_by_a_New_Unifying_Model_of_Weaning_in_Mammals/126174", "title"=>"Impact of Carnivory on Human Development and Evolution Revealed by a New Unifying Model of Weaning in Mammals", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-04-18 01:42:54"}

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Relative Metric

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