Impartial Third-Party Interventions in Captive Chimpanzees: A Reflection of Community Concern
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{"title"=>"Impartial third-party interventions in captive chimpanzees: A reflection of community concern", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Claudia Rudolf", "last_name"=>"von Rohr", "scopus_author_id"=>"36681700900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sonja E.", "last_name"=>"Koski", "scopus_author_id"=>"15751189100"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith M.", "last_name"=>"Burkart", "scopus_author_id"=>"14029595300"}, {"first_name"=>"Clare", "last_name"=>"Caws", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507643282"}, {"first_name"=>"Orlaith N.", "last_name"=>"Fraser", "scopus_author_id"=>"24468154100"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"Ziltener", "scopus_author_id"=>"55062075100"}, {"first_name"=>"Carel P.", "last_name"=>"van Schaik", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006482163"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84857815871", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857815871", "pmid"=>"22412879", "pui"=>"364373844", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0032494"}, "id"=>"2820c978-89d1-3e0e-abe3-31174ac98d65", "abstract"=>"Because conflicts among social group members are inevitable, their management is crucial for group stability. The rarest and most interesting form of conflict management is policing, i.e., impartial interventions by bystanders, which is of considerable interest due to its potentially moral nature. Here, we provide descriptive and quantitative data on policing in captive chimpanzees. First, we report on a high rate of policing in one captive group characterized by recently introduced females and a rank reversal between two males. We explored the influence of various factors on the occurrence of policing. The results show that only the alpha and beta males acted as arbitrators using manifold tactics to control conflicts, and that their interventions strongly depended on conflict complexity. Secondly, we compared the policing patterns in three other captive chimpanzee groups. We found that although rare, policing was more prevalent at times of increased social instability, both high-ranking males and females performed policing, and conflicts of all sex-dyad combinations were policed. These results suggest that the primary function of policing is to increase group stability. It may thus reflect prosocial behaviour based upon \"community concern.\" However, policing remains a rare behaviour and more data are needed to test the generality of this hypothesis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impartial-thirdparty-interventions-captive-chimpanzees-reflection-community-concern", "reader_count"=>104, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>26, "Social Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>26}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/670388"], "description"=>"<p>Each line represents an individual. Each symbol represents an Elo-rating after they were updated following an interaction of the depicted individual. Dotted lines indicate the time range of rank instabilities in the study group. Note: No data collection was performed in March and April 2007.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["highest-ranking", "individuals", "gossau", "february", "2007", "november"], "article_id"=>340867, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Claudia Rudolf von Rohr", "Sonja E. Koski", "Judith M. Burkart", "Clare Caws", "Orlaith N. Fraser", "Angela Ziltener", "Carel P. Van Schaik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032494.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elo_ratings_of_the_highest_ranking_individuals_of_the_study_group_in_Gossau_for_the_time_range_of_February_2007_until_the_end_of_the_study_in_November_2008_/340867", "title"=>"Elo-ratings of the highest-ranking individuals of the study group in Gossau for the time range of February 2007 until the end of the study in November 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-07 00:14:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/670562"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of the impartial interventions of all groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impartial", "interventions"], "article_id"=>341052, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Claudia Rudolf von Rohr", "Sonja E. Koski", "Judith M. Burkart", "Clare Caws", "Orlaith N. Fraser", "Angela Ziltener", "Carel P. Van Schaik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032494.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_the_impartial_interventions_of_all_groups_/341052", "title"=>"Overview of the impartial interventions of all groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-07 00:17:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/343985", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/344038", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/344085"], "description"=>"<div><p>Because conflicts among social group members are inevitable, their management is crucial for group stability. The rarest and most interesting form of conflict management is policing, i.e., <em>impartial interventions by bystanders</em>, which is of considerable interest due to its potentially moral nature. Here, we provide descriptive and quantitative data on policing in captive chimpanzees. First, we report on a high rate of policing in one captive group characterized by recently introduced females and a rank reversal between two males. We explored the influence of various factors on the occurrence of policing. The results show that only the alpha and beta males acted as arbitrators using manifold tactics to control conflicts, and that their interventions strongly depended on conflict complexity. Secondly, we compared the policing patterns in three other captive chimpanzee groups. We found that although rare, policing was more prevalent at times of increased social instability, both high-ranking males and females performed policing, and conflicts of all sex-dyad combinations were policed. These results suggest that the primary function of policing is to increase group stability. It may thus reflect prosocial behaviour based upon “community concern.” However, policing remains a rare behaviour and more data are needed to test the generality of this hypothesis.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impartial", "third-party", "interventions", "captive"], "article_id"=>127990, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Claudia Rudolf von Rohr", "Sonja E. Koski", "Judith M. Burkart", "Clare Caws", "Orlaith N. Fraser", "Angela Ziltener", "Carel P. Van Schaik"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032494.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032494.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032494.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impartial_Third_Party_Interventions_in_Captive_Chimpanzees_A_Reflection_of_Community_Concern/127990", "title"=>"Impartial Third-Party Interventions in Captive Chimpanzees: A Reflection of Community Concern", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-03-07 02:13:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/670467"], "description"=>"<p>Plots showing the 95% credible intervals for a) complexity of a conflict (dyadic vs. polyadic) and for b) the interaction between class of conflict (sex-dyad combination) and identity of arbitrator (male).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["credible", "intervals", "arbitrator"], "article_id"=>340950, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Claudia Rudolf von Rohr", "Sonja E. Koski", "Judith M. Burkart", "Clare Caws", "Orlaith N. Fraser", "Angela Ziltener", "Carel P. Van Schaik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032494.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_showing_the_95_credible_intervals_for_a_complexity_of_a_conflict_dyadic_vs_polyadic_and_for_b_the_interaction_between_class_of_conflict_sex_dyad_combination_and_identity_of_arbitrator_male_/340950", "title"=>"Plots showing the 95% credible intervals for a) complexity of a conflict (dyadic vs. polyadic) and for b) the interaction between class of conflict (sex-dyad combination) and identity of arbitrator (male).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-07 00:15:50"}

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Relative Metric

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