Specific versus Non-Specific Immune Responses in an Invertebrate Species Evidenced by a Comparative de novo Sequencing Study
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{"title"=>"Specific versus non-specific immune responses in an invertebrate species evidenced by a comparative de novo sequencing study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Emeline", "last_name"=>"Deleury", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506055857"}, {"first_name"=>"Géraldine", "last_name"=>"Dubreuil", "scopus_author_id"=>"23090142700"}, {"first_name"=>"Namasivayam", "last_name"=>"Elangovan", "scopus_author_id"=>"13204701500"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric", "last_name"=>"Wajnberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003994217"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Marc", "last_name"=>"Reichhart", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004312361"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin", "last_name"=>"Gourbal", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506691313"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Duval", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007029432"}, {"first_name"=>"Olga Lucia", "last_name"=>"Baron", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193310952"}, {"first_name"=>"Jérôme", "last_name"=>"Gouzy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004423897"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine", "last_name"=>"Coustau", "scopus_author_id"=>"56013184800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364412876", "sgr"=>"84858009742", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22427848", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84858009742", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0032512", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"0ebeec96-0155-3af8-bca2-9a865b6cc7de", "abstract"=>"Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5'-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5'-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs) of B. glabrata available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences) belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on B. glabrata and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance of gene duplication and acquisition of paralog functional diversity in the evolution of specific invertebrate immune responses.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/specific-versus-nonspecific-immune-responses-invertebrate-species-evidenced-comparative-novo-sequenc", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>3}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669869"], "description"=>"<p>Neighbour joining reconstruction of <i>B. glabrata</i> unisequences showing significant similarities with ferritins (complete predicted proteins only, shown in bold) and sequences from <i>Homo sapiens</i> (<i>Hs</i>), <i>Mus musculus</i> (<i>Mm</i>), <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> (<i>At</i>), <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> (<i>Dm</i>), Apis mellifera (<i>Am</i>), <i>Aplysia californica</i> (Ac), <i>Pinctada fucata</i> (<i>Pf</i>), <i>Crassostrea gigas</i> (Cg), <i>Lymnaea stagnalis</i> (<i>Ls</i>), <i>Haliotis discus discus</i> (<i>Hdd</i>), <i>Argopecten irradians</i> (<i>Ai</i>), <i>Hyriopsis schlegelii</i> (<i>Hsch</i>). Genbank accession numbers of the sequences used for the reconstruction are shown next to the species identification. <i>B. glabrata</i> sequences belonging to candidate differentially expressed clusters are indicated by the cluster number (cl). Presence of a signal peptide is indicated by (SP). Values at nodes are Bootstrap proportions. Bar: 0,2 substitution/site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>340352, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_of_ferritins_/340352", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships of ferritins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 00:05:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669973"], "description"=>"<p>Number of candidate unisequences (total and annotated) in each expression cluster.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unisequences"], "article_id"=>340457, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_candidate_unisequences_total_and_annotated_in_each_expression_cluster_/340457", "title"=>"Number of candidate unisequences (total and annotated) in each expression cluster.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 00:07:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669501"], "description"=>"<p>For each candidate, the expression is shown in control snails (Ct), or snails exposed to <i>B. cereus</i> (Bc), <i>E. coli</i> (Ec) or <i>S. cerevisiae</i> (Sc). These are 12 representative examples out of 36 analyzed candidates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transcripts", "clusters", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>339976, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_candidate_transcripts_from_clusters_1_2_and_3_using_quantitative_PCR_/339976", "title"=>"Expression of candidate transcripts from clusters 1, 2 and 3 using quantitative PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 02:46:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669640"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) <b>Schematic representation of the relation between the major immune-relevant processes or protein category.</b> For each process, a list of typical proteins and a color code are shown. <b>B</b>) <b>Distribution of the number of unisequences per process/category in the clusters 1, 2 and 3.</b> Colour codes are as in (A). The complete list of candidate unisequences from each cluster (code numbers as deposited in <a href=\"http://www.snaildb.org/\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.snaildb.org/</a>) is provided in the file text S1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "immunology", "microbiology", "Computational biology"], "article_id"=>340117, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Figure_7_/340117", "title"=>"Figure 7", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 00:01:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668838"], "description"=>"<p>The efficiency of the balneation procedure used to challenge the immune system of <i>B. glabrata</i> has been tested using fluorescent <i>E. coli</i> (DH5 α/GFP). Snails have been removed from their shell to allow observation and rinsed several times to remove external bacteria. (A) light and (B) UV observation of fluorescent bacteria in the snail body, with a preferential location in the hepatopancreas (Hp) and ovotestis (Ov).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tissues", "balneation", "bacterial"], "article_id"=>339316, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Presence_of_bacteria_in_B_glabrata_tissues_after_balneation_in_a_bacterial_suspension_/339316", "title"=>"Presence of bacteria in <i>B. glabrata</i> tissues after balneation in a bacterial suspension.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 02:35:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669381"], "description"=>"<p>Note that transcript clusters resulting from the HAC analysis show clear differences in expression profiles. Color code for expression is shown in fold-change as compared with control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transcripts", "libraries", "snails", "challenged", "compared"], "article_id"=>339860, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_expression_of_candidate_transcripts_in_the_three_libraries_of_snails_challenged_by_B_cereus_Bc_E_coli_Ec_or_S_cerevisiae_Sc_as_compared_with_their_expression_in_the_library_of_control_snails_Ct_/339860", "title"=>"Relative expression of candidate transcripts in the three libraries of snails challenged by <i>B. cereus</i> (Bc), <i>E. coli</i> (Ec) or <i>S. cerevisiae</i> (Sc) as compared with their expression in the library of control snails (Ct).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 02:44:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668995"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic representation of the computational and data analysis pipeline.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational"], "article_id"=>339473, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_the_computational_and_data_analysis_pipeline_/339473", "title"=>"Schematic representation of the computational and data analysis pipeline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 02:37:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669274"], "description"=>"<p>The two axes are shown on a logarithmic scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cumulative", "unisequences", "reads"], "article_id"=>339752, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reverse_cumulative_distribution_for_the_number_of_different_unisequences_n_8202_8202_5_308_that_have_at_least_a_given_number_of_reads_mapping_to_them_/339752", "title"=>"Reverse cumulative distribution for the number of different unisequences (n = 5,308) that have at least a given number of reads mapping to them.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 02:42:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/670056"], "description"=>"<p>Statistics on the reference transcriptomic database.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transcriptomic"], "article_id"=>340537, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistics_on_the_reference_transcriptomic_database_/340537", "title"=>"Statistics on the reference transcriptomic database.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 00:08:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/670018"], "description"=>"<p>Libraries have been prepared from sham-challenged control snails (Ct), or snails challenged by <i>B. cereus</i> (Bc) <i>E. coli</i> (Ec) or <i>S. cerevisiae</i> (Sc).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cdna"], "article_id"=>340502, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistics_on_the_5_8242_end_cDNA_libraries_/340502", "title"=>"Statistics on the 5′-end cDNA libraries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 00:08:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669155"], "description"=>"<p>Classification of the unisequences (n = 9,074) according to their GO terms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unisequences"], "article_id"=>339635, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Classification_of_the_unisequences_n_8202_8202_9_074_according_to_their_GO_terms_/339635", "title"=>"Classification of the unisequences (n = 9,074) according to their GO terms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 02:40:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/343215", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/343256", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/343277", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/343292", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/343320", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/343370"], "description"=>"<div><p>Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em> challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail <em>Biomphalaria glabrata</em>, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5′-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5′-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs) of <em>B. glabrata</em> available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences) belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on <em>B. glabrata</em> and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance of gene duplication and acquisition of paralog functional diversity in the evolution of specific invertebrate immune responses.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["non-specific", "responses", "invertebrate", "evidenced", "comparative", "sequencing"], "article_id"=>127844, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Specific_versus_Non_Specific_Immune_Responses_in_an_Invertebrate_Species_Evidenced_by_a_Comparative_de_novo_Sequencing_Study/127844", "title"=>"Specific <em>versus</em> Non-Specific Immune Responses in an Invertebrate Species Evidenced by a Comparative <em>de novo</em> Sequencing Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 02:10:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669772"], "description"=>"<p>Neighbour joining reconstruction of <i>B. glabrata</i> unisequences showing significant similarities with calmodulins (complete predicted proteins only, shown in bold) and sequences from <i>Homo sapiens</i> (<i>Hs</i>), <i>Mus musculus</i> (<i>Mm</i>), <i>Macaca mulatta</i> (<i>Macaca</i>), <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> (<i>At</i>), <i>Crassostrea gigas</i> (<i>Cg</i>), <i>Chlamydomonas incerta</i> (<i>Ci</i>), <i>Paramecium tetraurelia</i> (<i>Pt</i>), <i>Halichondria okadai</i> (<i>Ho</i>), <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i> (Sm), <i>Aplysia californica</i> (Ac), <i>Pinctada fucata</i> (<i>Pf</i>), <i>Salpingoeca sp. ATCC 50818</i> (<i>Ssp</i>), <i>Patinopecten sp</i>. (<i>Psp</i>). Genbank accession numbers of the sequences used for the reconstruction are shown next to the species identification. <i>B. glabrata</i> sequences belonging to candidate differentially expressed clusters are indicated by the cluster number (cl). Values at nodes are Bootstrap proportions. Bar: 0,1 substitution/site. Significant EF-hand domains (Pfam reference: accession no. PF00036; e-value<1.10-6) identified in each sequence are represented by green squares.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>340257, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emeline Deleury", "Géraldine Dubreuil", "Namasivayam Elangovan", "Eric Wajnberg", "Jean-Marc Reichhart", "Benjamin Gourbal", "David Duval", "Olga Lucia Baron", "Jérôme Gouzy", "Christine Coustau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032512.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_of_calmodulins_/340257", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships of calmodulins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-12 00:04:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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