Light-evoked Somatosensory Perception of Transgenic Rats That Express Channelrhodopsin-2 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells
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{"title"=>"Light-evoked somatosensory perception of transgenic rats that express channelrhodopsin-2 in dorsal root ganglion cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zhi Gang", "last_name"=>"Ji", "scopus_author_id"=>"55059315300"}, {"first_name"=>"Shin", "last_name"=>"Ito", "scopus_author_id"=>"55318304200"}, {"first_name"=>"Tatsuya", "last_name"=>"Honjoh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55062952800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroyuki", "last_name"=>"Ohta", "scopus_author_id"=>"55549008100"}, {"first_name"=>"Toru", "last_name"=>"Ishizuka", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202809139"}, {"first_name"=>"Yugo", "last_name"=>"Fukazawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101987129"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiromu", "last_name"=>"Yawo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004649150"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364373489", "sgr"=>"84857832281", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22412908", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857832281", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0032699", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"e532c302-a3d4-3193-9a07-69b6700fd8f6", "abstract"=>"In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promoter. In one of them, W-TChR2V4, some neurons were endowed with photosensitivity by the introduction of the ChR2 gene, coding an algal photoreceptor molecule. The DRG neurons expressing ChR2 were immunohistochemically identified using specific antibodies to the markers of mechanoreceptive or nociceptive neurons. Their peripheral nerve endings in the plantar skin as well as the central endings in the spinal cord were also examined. We identified that ChR2 is expressed in a certain population of large neurons in the DRG of W-TChR2V4. On the basis of their morphology and molecular markers, these neurons were classified as mechanoreceptive but not nociceptive. ChR2 was also distributed in their peripheral sensory nerve endings, some of which were closely associated with CK20-positive cells to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes or with S-100-positive cells to form structures like Meissner's corpuscles. These nerve endings are thus suggested to be involved in the sensing of touch. Each W-TChR2V4 rat showed a sensory-evoked behavior in response to blue LED flashes on the plantar skin. It is thus suggested that each rat acquired an unusual sensory modality of sensing blue light through the skin as touch-pressure. This light-evoked somatosensory perception should facilitate study of how the complex tactile sense emerges in the brain.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lightevoked-somatosensory-perception-transgenic-rats-express-channelrhodopsin2-dorsal-root-ganglion", "reader_count"=>99, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>36, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>36, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>16, "Unspecified"=>6, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>16, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>16}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>16}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/671291"], "description"=>"<p>The average diameters of DRG neurons were compared among four groups positive for ChR2V (green), NF200 (blue), CGRP (magenta) and P2X<sub>3</sub> (orange).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diameters", "drg", "neurons", "compared", "groups", "chr2v", "nf200", "cgrp"], "article_id"=>341771, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Ji", "Shin Ito", "Tatsuya Honjoh", "Hiroyuki Ohta", "Toru Ishizuka", "Yugo Fukazawa", "Hiromu Yawo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_average_diameters_of_DRG_neurons_were_compared_among_four_groups_positive_for_ChR2V_green_NF200_blue_CGRP_magenta_and_P2X_3_orange_/341771", "title"=>"The average diameters of DRG neurons were compared among four groups positive for ChR2V (green), NF200 (blue), CGRP (magenta) and P2X<sub>3</sub> (orange).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-06 00:29:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/671710"], "description"=>"<p>A. Representative records of photocurrents (bottom) evoked by blue LED light of variable strength (top) under voltage clamp. An arrow indicates the unclamped current from escaped action potentials. B. The peak (closed diamonds) and the steady-state (open squares) photocurrent amplitudes (mean ± SEM, both n = 24) as functions of the light power density. C. Representative records of the neuronal membrane potential evoked by blue LED pulses (200 ms) of variable strength under current clamp. The resting membrane potential, −56 mV. D. The maximal voltage changes as a function of the light power density (n = 16). E. Representative records of membrane potential responses of a ChR2V-expressing DRG neuron to the repeated flashing of blue LED pulses (1.6 mWmm<sup>−2</sup>, 20 ms duration) at various frequencies, that is, 5 Hz (top), 10 Hz (middle) and 20 Hz (bottom). F. Fidelity of generation of action potentials as a function of frequency (mean ± SEM, n = 14).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "drg"], "article_id"=>342200, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Ji", "Shin Ito", "Tatsuya Honjoh", "Hiroyuki Ohta", "Toru Ishizuka", "Yugo Fukazawa", "Hiromu Yawo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Optical_responses_of_the_ChR2V_DRG_neurons_/342200", "title"=>"Optical responses of the ChR2V+ DRG neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-06 00:36:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/671867"], "description"=>"<p>A. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. One of four paws was placed in the light path of a blue or red LED so that the plantar skin faced the light while the rest of the body was covered with a black cloth. The distance between the surface of the collimator lens of the LED and the plantar skin was set to about 4 cm, but the exact distance was in the range of 3–5 cm because of the spontaneous movements of the paw. All the experiments were carried out under yellow, dim background light. The optically evoked behavioral responses were scored according to the movement around joints: toe, ankle/wrist or knee/elbow (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699#pone-0032699-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). B and C. Light-evoked responses of hindpaws were compared between the wild-type (n = 8) and the ChR2V+ rats (n = 8). The probability of large movements (score 2–3, B) or the average score over ten successive tests (C) was compared between blue and red LED light. D and E. Light-evoked responses of forepaws of the same group of rats: the probability of large movements (score 2–3, D) or the average score (E). Wicoxon signed-rank test was applied for the paired data (*, P<0.01) and Mann-Whitney <i>U</i>-test for unpaired data (**, P<0.0005).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evoked"], "article_id"=>342358, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Ji", "Shin Ito", "Tatsuya Honjoh", "Hiroyuki Ohta", "Toru Ishizuka", "Yugo Fukazawa", "Hiromu Yawo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Optically_evoked_behavioral_responses_/342358", "title"=>"Optically evoked behavioral responses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-06 00:39:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/344451", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/344551", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/344653", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/344777", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/344904", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/345038", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/345125", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/345197", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/345319", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/345356"], "description"=>"<div><p>In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promoter. In one of them, W-TChR2V4, some neurons were endowed with photosensitivity by the introduction of the ChR2 gene, coding an algal photoreceptor molecule. The DRG neurons expressing ChR2 were immunohistochemically identified using specific antibodies to the markers of mechanoreceptive or nociceptive neurons. Their peripheral nerve endings in the plantar skin as well as the central endings in the spinal cord were also examined. We identified that ChR2 is expressed in a certain population of large neurons in the DRG of W-TChR2V4. On the basis of their morphology and molecular markers, these neurons were classified as mechanoreceptive but not nociceptive. ChR2 was also distributed in their peripheral sensory nerve endings, some of which were closely associated with CK20-positive cells to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes or with S-100-positive cells to form structures like Meissner's corpuscles. These nerve endings are thus suggested to be involved in the sensing of touch. Each W-TChR2V4 rat showed a sensory-evoked behavior in response to blue LED flashes on the plantar skin. It is thus suggested that each rat acquired an unusual sensory modality of sensing blue light through the skin as touch-pressure. This light-evoked somatosensory perception should facilitate study of how the complex tactile sense emerges in the brain.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["light-evoked", "somatosensory", "transgenic", "rats", "channelrhodopsin-2", "dorsal", "ganglion", "cells"], "article_id"=>128083, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Ji", "Shin Ito", "Tatsuya Honjoh", "Hiroyuki Ohta", "Toru Ishizuka", "Yugo Fukazawa", "Hiromu Yawo"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Light_evoked_Somatosensory_Perception_of_Transgenic_Rats_That_Express_Channelrhodopsin_2_in_Dorsal_Root_Ganglion_Cells/128083", "title"=>"Light-evoked Somatosensory Perception of Transgenic Rats That Express Channelrhodopsin-2 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-03-06 02:14:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/671563"], "description"=>"<p>A–D. Immunohistochemical identification of the ChR2V+ nerve endings in the skin in relation to MBP (A), CK20 (B), S-100 (C) or CGRP (D). E. Co-localization of the ChR2V+ nerve endings with PV in the muscle spindle. Scale bars indicate 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chr2v", "peripheral", "sensory"], "article_id"=>342052, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Ji", "Shin Ito", "Tatsuya Honjoh", "Hiroyuki Ohta", "Toru Ishizuka", "Yugo Fukazawa", "Hiromu Yawo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_ChR2V_in_the_peripheral_sensory_nerve_endings_/342052", "title"=>"Distribution of ChR2V in the peripheral sensory nerve endings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-06 00:34:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/671168"], "description"=>"<p>A–D. Immunohistochemical identification of ChR2V-expressing neurons using cell-type specific markers, NF200 (A), CGRP (B), P2X<sub>3</sub> (C) and PV (D). Scale bars indicate 20 µm. E. Probability of the co-expression of each marker, NF200, CGRP, P2X<sub>3</sub> or PV, in the ChR2V+ neurons. F. Probability of the co-expression of ChR2V in the neurons positive for each marker, NF200, CGRP, P2X<sub>3</sub> or PV.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["channelrhodopsin", "conjugates", "dorsal", "ganglion", "w-tchr2v4"], "article_id"=>341650, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Ji", "Shin Ito", "Tatsuya Honjoh", "Hiroyuki Ohta", "Toru Ishizuka", "Yugo Fukazawa", "Hiromu Yawo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032699.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_channelrhodopsin_2_Venus_conjugates_ChR2V_in_the_dorsal_root_ganglion_DRG_of_W_TChR2V4_rats_/341650", "title"=>"Distribution of channelrhodopsin 2-<i>Venus</i> conjugates (ChR2V) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of W-TChR2V4 rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-06 00:27:30"}

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Relative Metric

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