Evidence for a Trade-Off Strategy in Stone Oak (Lithocarpus) Seeds between Physical and Chemical Defense Highlights Fiber as an Important Antifeedant
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{"title"=>"Evidence for a trade-off strategy in stone oak (Lithocarpus) seeds between physical and chemical defense highlights fiber as an important antifeedant", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Xi", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55286965900"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles H.", "last_name"=>"Cannon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202171575"}, {"first_name"=>"Nancy Lou", "last_name"=>"Conklin-Brittan", "scopus_author_id"=>"55285894800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84863343710", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0032890", "pui"=>"364486506", "pmid"=>"22457722", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84863343710", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"3add9a30-9caa-3504-a85e-6e8d9b6dde2f", "abstract"=>"Trees in the beech or oak family (Fagaceae) have a mutualistic relationship with scatter-hoarding rodents. Rodents obtain nutrients and energy by consuming seeds, while providing seed dispersal for the tree by allowing some cached seeds to germinate. Seed predation and caching behavior of rodents is primarily affected by seed size, mechanical protection, macronutrient content, and chemical antifeedants. To enhance seed dispersal, trees must optimize trade-offs in investment between macronutrients and antifeedants. Here, we examine this important chemical balance in the seeds of tropical stone oak species with two substantially different fruit morphologies. These two distinct fruit morphologies in Lithocarpus differ in the degree of mechanical protection of the seed. For 'acorn' fruit, a thin exocarp forms a shell around the seed while for 'enclosed receptacle' (ER) fruit, the seed is embedded in a woody receptacle. We compared the chemical composition of numerous macronutrient and antifeedant in seeds from several Lithocarpus species, focusing on two pairs of sympatric species with different fruit morphologies. We found that macronutrients, particularly total non-structural carbohydrate, was more concentrated in seeds of ER fruits while antifeedants, primarily fibers, were more concentrated in seeds of acorn fruits. The trade-off in these two major chemical components was more evident between the two sympatric lowland species than between two highland species. Surprisingly, no significant difference in overall tannin concentrations in the seeds was observed between the two fruit morphologies. Instead, the major trade-off between macronutrients and antifeedants involved indigestible fibers. Future studies of this complex mutualism should carefully consider the role of indigestible fibers in the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evidence-tradeoff-strategy-stone-oak-lithocarpus-seeds-between-physical-chemical-defense-highlights", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"China"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663809"], "description"=>"<p><i>L. craibianus</i> (acorn) and <i>L. truncatus</i> (ER) are sympatric lowland species while <i>L. hancei</i> and <i>L. xylocarpus</i> are sympatric and co-dominant species in the highlands. <i>L. calolepis</i> was also collected in the Ailao Mountains but it is not generally sympatric with the previous two species. <i>L. grandifolius</i> was collected on the roadside from Fugong to Liuku.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>334304, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_seed_size_dry_weight_of_six_Lithocarpus_species_/334304", "title"=>"The seed size (dry weight) of six <i>Lithocarpus</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:24:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/664044"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>L. hancei (acorn fruit type) and L. xylocarpus (ER fruit type) are co-dominant and sympatric species from the highland. L. craibianus (acorn fruit type) and L. truncatus (ER fruit type) are sympatric species from the lowland. CP (crude protein). Those values that are designated with a * exhibit a statistical difference at p<0.05, ** for p<0.01, and *** for p<0.001. Those p values that are bold and italic exhibit an opposite result from prediction.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparisons", "macronutrients", "antifeedants", "sympatric", "highland", "lowland"], "article_id"=>334529, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pair_wise_comparisons_of_seed_macronutrients_and_antifeedants_between_sympatric_Lithocarpus_species_in_highland_and_lowland_areas_/334529", "title"=>"Pair-wise comparisons of seed macronutrients and antifeedants between sympatric <i>Lithocarpus</i> species in highland and lowland areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/664130"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations of measured macronutrient and antifeedant fractions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macronutrient", "antifeedant"], "article_id"=>334630, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abbreviations_of_measured_macronutrient_and_antifeedant_fractions_/334630", "title"=>"Abbreviations of measured macronutrient and antifeedant fractions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/664104"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>All numbers represent as composite measurements of several seeds. Please refer to the material and methods for the calculation of the fractions.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antifeedants", "macronutrients"], "article_id"=>334599, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_values_of_seed_antifeedants_and_macronutrients_in_six_Lithocarpus_species_/334599", "title"=>"Mean values of seed antifeedants and macronutrients in six <i>Lithocarpus</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663468"], "description"=>"<p>The bar indicates the scale of the seeds. Blue and red contour lines represent the exocarp and receptacle tissue, respectively. a) Acorn fruit represented by <i>L. calolepis</i>. The seed develops above the flat receptacle, greatly expanding the exocarp. b) ER fruit represented by <i>L. xylocarpus</i>. The seed remains embedded in the developing and greatly expanding receptacle while the vestigial exocarp forms a small apical layer.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enclosed", "receptacle"], "article_id"=>333960, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Acorn_and_Enclosed_Receptacle_ER_fruit_types_/333960", "title"=>"Acorn and Enclosed Receptacle (ER) fruit types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:22:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663561"], "description"=>"<p>The top figure illustrates the Sino-Himalaya region and the sample sites within the Hengduan Mts. region. The lower figure indicates the three sample sites in Yunnan province.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "hengduan", "sino-himalaya"], "article_id"=>334048, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_sample_sites_in_the_Hengduan_Mts_Sino_Himalaya_region_/334048", "title"=>"The sample sites in the Hengduan Mts., Sino-Himalaya region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:22:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663961"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>Macronutrient elements include crude protein (CP), lipid (Lipid), free simple sugar (FSS), total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) minus free simple sugar (FSS) represent starch and non-starch polysaccharide; antifeedant elements include condensed tannin (CT), bioactive tannin (BT) minus condensed tannin (CT) represents hydrolysable tannin, lignin (Ln), hemicellulose (HC), cellulose (Ce).</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["discriminant", "macronutrients", "antifeedants", "seeds", "acorn", "er"], "article_id"=>334445, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_discriminant_function_analysis_DA_of_macronutrients_and_antifeedants_between_seeds_of_acorn_and_ER_fruits_/334445", "title"=>"Linear discriminant function analysis (DA) of macronutrients and antifeedants between seeds of acorn and ER fruits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:24:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663734"], "description"=>"<p>Four species had acorn fruits (a, b, c, and e) while two species had enclosed receptacle (ER) fruits (d and f). Collection sites for each species were: Hengduan Mountain region (a–b); the lowland site – Wushigonglichu, Menglun (c–d); the highland site – Ailao Mountains, Jingdong (e–f). The 1cm bar indicates the scale of each fruit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sections"], "article_id"=>334227, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Radial_sections_of_fruit_from_the_six_Lithocarpus_species_/334227", "title"=>"Radial sections of fruit from the six <i>Lithocarpus</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:23:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663997"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>Those values that are designated with a * exhibit a statistical difference at p<0.05, ** for p<0.01, and *** for p<0.001.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macronutrients", "antifeedants", "comparing", "types", "enclosed"], "article_id"=>334485, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ANOVA_of_seed_macronutrients_and_antifeedants_comparing_Lithocarpus_species_with_different_fruit_types_acorn_vs_enclosed_receptacle_/334485", "title"=>"ANOVA of seed macronutrients and antifeedants comparing <i>Lithocarpus</i> species with different fruit types (acorn vs. enclosed receptacle).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663879"], "description"=>"<p>Acorn species include <i>L. hancei</i>, <i>L. calolepis</i>, <i>L. craibianus</i> and <i>L. grandifolius</i>; ER species are <i>L. truncatus</i> and <i>L. xylocarpus</i>. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890#pone-0032890-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for a list of the macronutrients and antifeedants included in this analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["discriminant", "macronutrients", "antifeedants", "seeds", "acorn", "er"], "article_id"=>334361, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_discriminant_function_analysis_of_macronutrients_and_antifeedants_between_seeds_of_acorn_and_ER_fruit_/334361", "title"=>"Linear discriminant function analysis of macronutrients and antifeedants between seeds of acorn and ER fruit.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:24:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/664074"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>All numbers represent as composite measurements of several seeds. Please refer to the material and methods for the calculation of the fractions.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antifeedant", "macronutrient", "levels", "sampled", "individuals"], "article_id"=>334557, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xi Chen", "Charles H. Cannon", "Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032890.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seed_antifeedant_and_macronutrient_levels_for_all_sampled_individuals_in_six_Lithocarpus_species_expressed_at_a_percentage_of_field_dry_weight_/334557", "title"=>"Seed antifeedant and macronutrient levels for all sampled individuals in six <i>Lithocarpus</i> species, expressed at a percentage of field dry weight.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:31"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Plant science", "average_usage"=>[329, 543, 667, 773, 865, 963, 1066, 1149, 1233, 1323, 1411, 1500, 1588, 1661, 1732, 1803, 1887, 1978, 2057, 2138, 2203, 2283, 2363, 2419, 2493]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[302, 508, 622, 720, 804, 888, 973, 1054, 1141, 1219, 1299, 1370, 1442, 1511, 1574, 1644, 1711, 1782, 1846, 1911, 1971, 2030, 2097, 2155, 2217]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[314, 504, 614, 722, 798, 877, 957, 1055, 1131, 1207, 1278, 1350, 1430, 1503, 1570, 1640, 1694, 1774, 1844, 1915, 1971, 2046, 2104, 2175, 2251]}]}
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