A Water Soluble CoQ10 Formulation Improves Intracellular Distribution and Promotes Mitochondrial Respiration in Cultured Cells
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{"title"=>"A water soluble CoQ 10 formulation improves intracellular distribution and promotes mitochondrial respiration in cultured cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christian", "last_name"=>"Bergamini", "scopus_author_id"=>"9536220700"}, {"first_name"=>"Noah", "last_name"=>"Moruzzi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55092725300"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonella", "last_name"=>"Sblendido", "scopus_author_id"=>"55091217800"}, {"first_name"=>"Giorgio", "last_name"=>"Lenaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102693535"}, {"first_name"=>"Romana", "last_name"=>"Fato", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603956150"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84858257130", "sgr"=>"84858257130", "pui"=>"364433923", "pmid"=>"22432044", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0033712"}, "id"=>"762c357e-fdcd-363d-beb2-ec4f1638ba33", "abstract"=>"Background: Mitochondria are both the cellular powerhouse and the major source of reactive oxygen species. Coenzyme Q 10 plays a key role in mitochondrial energy production and is recognized as a powerful antioxidant. For these reasons it can be argued that higher mitochondrial ubiquinone levels may enhance the energy state and protect from oxidative stress. Despite the large number of clinical studies on the effect of CoQ 10 supplementation, there are very few experimental data about the mitochondrial ubiquinone content and the cellular bioenergetic state after supplementation. Controversial clinical and in vitro results are mainly due to the high hydrophobicity of this compound, which reduces its bioavailability. Principal Findings: We measured the cellular and mitochondrial ubiquinone content in two cell lines (T67 and H9c2) after supplementation with a hydrophilic CoQ 10 formulation (Qter®) and native CoQ 10. Our results show that the water soluble formulation is more efficient in increasing ubiquinone levels. We have evaluated the bioenergetics effect of ubiquinone treatment, demonstrating that intracellular CoQ 10 content after Qter supplementation positively correlates with an improved mitochondrial functionality (increased oxygen consumption rate, transmembrane potential, ATP synthesis) and resistance to oxidative stress. Conclusions: The improved cellular energy metabolism related to increased CoQ 10 content represents a strong rationale for the clinical use of coenzyme Q 10 and highlights the biological effects of Qter®, that make it the eligible CoQ 10 formulation for the ubiquinone supplementation. © 2012 Bergamini et al.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/water-soluble-coq-10-formulation-improves-intracellular-distribution-promotes-mitochondrial-respirat", "reader_count"=>8, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668469"], "description"=>"<p>Representative images show JC-1 fluorescence in control H9c2 cells (A), H9c2 cells treated for 24 hours with 100 nM Qter® (B) and H9c2 cells treated with 500 nM of the uncoupler FCCP (C). Panel D shows quantitative analysis of Red/Green fluorescence ratio measured by ImageJ software. (n = 20, * p≤0.001 vs. control; ≠p≤0.001 vs. control.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mitochondrial", "jc-1"], "article_id"=>338957, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assessment_of_mitochondrial_potential_by_JC_1_staining_/338957", "title"=>"Assessment of mitochondrial potential by JC-1 staining.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:48:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668354"], "description"=>"<p>T67 cells were treated for 24 hours with 100 nM Qter or 10 µM native CoQ<sub>10</sub>, then ubiquinone was immediately extracted, from an equal number of cells, with isopropyl alcohol (for further details see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and methods</a>) and the UV spectra were recorded between 320 and 240 nm. The ubiquinone extracted from 100 nM Qter treated sample appears to be completely reduced with a maximum absorption peak at 290 nm, while the ubiquinone extracted from 10 µM native CoQ<sub>10</sub> treated sample has a maximum absorption peak shifted towards 275 nm, indicating the presence of the ubiquinone oxidized form. Spectra are representative of three different experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spectra", "oxidized", "reduced"], "article_id"=>338843, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>77, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_UV_spectra_of_oxidized_and_reduced_ubiquinone_/338843", "title"=>"UV spectra of oxidized and reduced ubiquinone.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:47:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667865"], "description"=>"<p>ROS were detected following DCFDA fluorescence in cells treated for 24 hours with 100 nM or 10 uM native CoQ<sub>10</sub> or Qter®. ROS were induced by 48 hours treatment with 100 nM Rotenone in T67 (A) and H9c2 cells (B) or by 30 minutes exposure to 100 µM TBH in T67 cells (C) and H9c2 cells (D). Data are the mean ± S.D. of at least three different determinations and are expressed as arbitrary fluorescence units (A.F.U.) normalized on protein content. Protein content was evaluated by Lowry method. Asterisks refer to the statistically significant decrease of ROS production in Rotenone/TBH treated samples supplemented with quinones (n = 5, * p≤0.05); ** p≤0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["supplementation", "oxidative", "induced", "rotenone", "t-butyl", "hydroperoxide"], "article_id"=>338345, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_CoQ_10_supplementation_on_oxidative_stress_induced_by_Rotenone_and_t_Butyl_hydroperoxide_TBH_/338345", "title"=>"Effects of CoQ<sub>10</sub> supplementation on oxidative stress induced by Rotenone and t-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBH).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:45:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667698"], "description"=>"<p>H9c2 cells were treated up to 72 hours with 100 nM Qter® and the ATP content was measured at 24, 48 and 72 hours by HPLC analysis (A). Panel B shows the intracellular ATP content after 24 hours treatment with 100 nM Qter® or native CoQ<sub>10</sub>, measured using luminescence ATP detection assay. Data are reported as arbitrary luminometric units and normalized on total protein content. (Values are means ± S.D.,n = 5, * p≤0.01 vs control). H9c2 cells treated with 100 nM Qter up to 72 hours were assayed for protein content at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Protein content was evaluated by Lowry method (C), (Values are means ± S.D., n = 5, * p≤0.05 vs. control). Cell growth was assessed by trypan blue exclusion method (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["h9c2"], "article_id"=>338189, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_Qter_174_treatment_on_ATP_protein_content_and_cell_growth_in_H9c2_cells_/338189", "title"=>"Effect of Qter® treatment on ATP, protein content and cell growth in H9c2 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:44:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668644"], "description"=>"<p>Respirometric analyses were performed under endogenous and uncoupled conditions (500 nM FCCP). Respiratory rates in the presence of FCCP are expressed as percentage of oxygen consumption respect to the endogenous respiration ± S.D.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["respiratory", "rates", "t67", "cells", "treated", "24", "10"], "article_id"=>339125, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_respiratory_rates_measured_in_T67_cells_treated_for_24_hours_with_10_M_native_CoQ_10_or_Qter_174_/339125", "title"=>"Percentage of respiratory rates measured in T67 cells treated for 24 hours with 10 µM native CoQ<sub>10</sub> or Qter®.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:49:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667502"], "description"=>"<p>HPLC determination of CoQ<sub>10</sub> cellular content in T67 cells (A) and H9c2 (B) treated for 24 hours with native CoQ<sub>10</sub> or Qter® at different concentrations (100 nM and 10 µM). Coenzyme Q<sub>10</sub> content was measured also in isolated mitochondria from T67 (C) and H9c2 (D) cells. Data were normalized on total cellular and mitochondrial protein content. Values are means ± S.D., n = 3, * p<0.001 vs. control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coq10", "cellular"], "article_id"=>337991, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HPLC_determination_of_CoQ10_cellular_content_/337991", "title"=>"HPLC determination of CoQ10 cellular content.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:43:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668021"], "description"=>"<p>The representative fluorescence images showed the oxidized MitoSOX fluorescence signal in control H9c2 cells (A) and H9c2 cells following 24 treatment with 100 nM Qter® (B). The fluorescence intensity reported in panel C was quantified by Image J software. Values are presented as means ± SD; <i>n</i> = 20. * p≤0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiological", "mitochondrial", "superoxide", "mitosox"], "article_id"=>338507, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_physiological_mitochondrial_superoxide_production_using_MitoSOX_Red_/338507", "title"=>"Analysis of physiological mitochondrial superoxide production using MitoSOX Red.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:46:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668556"], "description"=>"<p>Respirometric analyses were performed under endogenous and uncoupled conditions. The maximal uncoupled respiration was measured in the presence of 500 nM FCCP. Respiratory rates are expressed as nmoles O<sub>2</sub> min<sup>−1</sup>/10<sup>6</sup>cells ± S.D. from at least three independent experiments. *<i>p</i><0.05 vs. control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "h9c2", "t67", "cells", "treated", "24", "100", "nm"], "article_id"=>339037, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Respiratory_rates_of_intact_H9c2_and_T67_cells_treated_for_24_hours_with_100_nM_native_CoQ_10_or_Qter_174_/339037", "title"=>"Respiratory rates of intact H9c2 and T67 cells treated for 24 hours with 100 nM native CoQ<sub>10</sub> or Qter®.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:48:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668604"], "description"=>"<p>Respirometric analyses were performed in the presence of 5 mM Glutamate/Malate or 12,5 mM Succinate/Glycerol 3-phosphate. Respiratory rates are expressed as nmoles O<sub>2</sub> min<sup>−1</sup>/10<sup>6</sup> cells ± S.D. from at least three independent experiments, *<i>p</i><0.05 vs. control. **<i>p</i><0.001 vs. control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "permeabilized", "h9c2", "t67", "cells", "treated", "24", "100", "nm"], "article_id"=>339083, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Respiratory_rates_of_permeabilized_H9c2_and_T67_cells_treated_for_24_hours_with_100_nM_native_CoQ_10_or_Qter_174_/339083", "title"=>"Respiratory rates of permeabilized H9c2 and T67 cells treated for 24 hours with 100 nM native CoQ<sub>10</sub> or Qter®.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:49:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667339"], "description"=>"<p>H9c2 cells were treated with different concentrations of native CoQ<sub>10</sub> or Qter® dissolved in colture medium. After 24 hours cells were carefully washed with PBS and CoQ<sub>10</sub> was extracted with exane/ethanol 5∶2 from whole cells and its concentration was determined by HPLC analysis. Data are normalized on total cellular protein content. Values are means ± S.D., n = 3, * p<0.001 vs. native CoQ<sub>10</sub> treated samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["uptake", "h9c2"], "article_id"=>337820, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Titration_of_CoQ_10_uptake_in_H9c2_cells_/337820", "title"=>"Titration of CoQ<sub>10</sub> uptake in H9c2 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:42:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668222"], "description"=>"<p>Membrane lipids were extracted from T67 cells treated for 24 hours with Qter (100 nM and 10 µM) and CoQ<sub>10</sub> (10 µM) after 30 minutes exposure to 100 µM TBH. Each spectrum was obtained as a difference spectra between TBH treated and TBH untreated samples. Spectra are normalized on total protein content and are representative of three different sets of experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spectra", "conjugated"], "article_id"=>338710, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_UV_Spectra_of_conjugated_dienes_/338710", "title"=>"UV Spectra of conjugated dienes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/668095"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were pre-treated for 24 hours with native CoQ<sub>10</sub> and QTer (100 nM and 10 µM). Panel A shows the MDA levels in the absence of external oxidative stress. Panel B shows the MDA levels after 30 minutes exposure to 100 µM TBH. Data are the mean of two different experimental determinations and are normalized on total protein content.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "t67", "cells", "treated"], "article_id"=>338579, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Christian Bergamini", "Noah Moruzzi", "Antonella Sblendido", "Giorgio Lenaz", "Romana Fato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033712.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Malondialdehyde_MDA_levels_in_T67_cells_treated_with_native_CoQ_10_or_Qter_/338579", "title"=>"Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in T67 cells treated with native CoQ<sub>10</sub> or Qter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:46:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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