Shared Resistance to Aging and ALS in Neuromuscular Junctions of Specific Muscles
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{"title"=>"Shared resistance to aging and als in neuromuscular junctions of specific muscles", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gregorio", "last_name"=>"Valdez", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603892447"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan C.", "last_name"=>"Tapia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005419969"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeff W.", "last_name"=>"Lichtman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005493194"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael A.", "last_name"=>"Fox", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401718432"}, {"first_name"=>"Joshua R.", "last_name"=>"Sanes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101618554"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364557656", "sgr"=>"84859336755", "pmid"=>"22485182", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84859336755", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0034640", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"fbb97360-7ca3-3549-817b-79df867c5a63", "abstract"=>"Normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases both lead to structural and functional alterations in synapses. Comparison of synapses that are generally similar but respond differently to insults could provide the basis for discovering mechanisms that underlie susceptibility or resistance to damage. Here, we analyzed skeletal neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in 16 mouse muscles to seek such differences. We find that muscles respond in one of three ways to aging. In some, including most limb and trunk muscles, age-related alterations to NMJs are progressive and extensive during the second postnatal year. NMJs in other muscles, such as extraocular muscles, are strikingly resistant to change. A third set of muscles, including several muscles of facial expression and the external anal sphinter, succumb to aging but not until the third postnatal year. We asked whether susceptible and resistant muscles differed in rostrocaudal or proximodistal position, source of innervation, motor unit size, or fiber type composition. Of these factors, muscle innervation by brainstem motor neurons correlated best with resistance to age-related decline. Finally, we compared synaptic alterations in normally aging muscles to those in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Patterns of resistance and susceptibility were strikingly correlated in the two conditions. Moreover, damage to NMJs in aged muscles correlated with altered expression and distribution of CRMP4a and TDP-43, which are both altered in motor neurons affected by ALS. Together, these results reveal novel structural, regional and molecular parallels between aging and ALS.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/shared-resistance-aging-als-neuromuscular-junctions-specific-muscles", "reader_count"=>114, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>59, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>19, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>19}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>59}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Uruguay"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/659398"], "description"=>"<p>A) Cross-sections of soleus, EDL, and interscutularis muscles from young adult mice stained with antibodies specific for myosin Type I, IIA or IIB. Scale Bar: 20 µm. B) Fiber type composition of muscles, determined from micrographs such as those in A. NMJs in both soleus and EDL suffer severe age-related changes but differ in fiber type composition. In contrast, NMJs in frontalis, levator auris longus and intercutularis are largely spared from age-related changes, even though their fiber type composition of these muscles is similar to that of the EDL.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscles", "nmjs", "severity", "age-related"], "article_id"=>329883, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fiber_type_composition_of_muscles_with_NMJs_that_vary_in_severity_of_age_related_changes_/329883", "title"=>"Fiber type composition of muscles with NMJs that vary in severity of age-related changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 02:44:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/658935"], "description"=>"<p>Muscles from transgenic mice that expressed YFP in axons (green) were stained with BTX to label AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane (red). A) Young adult extensor digitorum longus (EDL). B) Two year-old EDL. C) Young adult extraocular muscle (EOM). D) Old EOM. Age-related alterations are striking in EDL but subtle in EOM. Scale Bar: 10 µm. Eight previously documented age-related alterations <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone.0034640-Valdez1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>were quantified from images such as those shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. E) Fragmentation of the postsynaptic membrane. F) Decreased AChR density. G) Partial denervation. H) Complete denervation. J) Nerve terminal sprouting. I) Preterminal axonal distension. K) Axonal dystrophy. L) Multiple innervation of a single postsynaptic site. Each bar represents mean ± SEM from at least 3 animals, with at least 100 NMJs counted per animal. *p<0.01 by <i>t</i>-test. Scale bar = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extensor", "digitorium", "longus", "extraocular"], "article_id"=>329420, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NMJs_in_young_adult_and_old_extensor_digitorium_longus_and_extraocular_muscles_/329420", "title"=>"NMJs in young adult and old extensor digitorium longus and extraocular muscles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 02:37:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/660624"], "description"=>"<p>A–D) TDP-43 immunoreactivity of motor neurons in caudal spinal cord from young adult wild type (A), old wild-type (B) and symptomatic SOD-G93A (C) mice. Somata are labeled with Neurotrace (A, B) or YFP (C). D) Percent of motor neurons with strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, cytoplasmic aggregates, or barely detectable levels of TDP-43 in spinal cord of young adult, old, and symptomatic SOD-G93A mice. Each bar represents mean ± SEM. Scale bar = 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["localization", "tdp-43", "aging"], "article_id"=>331113, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Level_and_localization_of_TDP_43_in_aging_and_ALS_/331113", "title"=>"Level and localization of TDP-43 in aging and ALS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:18:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/660066"], "description"=>"<p>A, B) Branching trees from motor units in young adult (A) and old (B) omohyoid muscles. Color of circles represents the degree of AChR occupancy by nerve terminals (color code, bottom right corner). C) No correlation between AChR occupancy and distance of the nerve terminal from the first branch point of the axonal arbor in either the young adult (r = 0.09) or the aged animal (r = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["axons", "aged"], "article_id"=>330554, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Branch_order_analysis_of_motor_axons_in_young_adult_and_aged_animals_/330554", "title"=>"Branch order analysis of motor axons in young adult and aged animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:09:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/659214"], "description"=>"<p>NMJs from EDL (A), frontalis (B) and EOM (C) of 3 year-old mice. D) Incidence of age-related alterations in NMJs of 3 month-, 2 year-, and 3 year-old mice. Each bar represents mean ± SEM from at least 3 animals, with at least 100 NMJs counted per animal. *p<0.025 by <i>t</i>-test. Scale bar = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alterations", "nmjs"], "article_id"=>329702, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_alterations_in_NMJs_during_the_third_year_/329702", "title"=>"Structural alterations in NMJs during the third year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 02:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/659880"], "description"=>"<p>Tracings from muscles such as the one shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7A</a>. A–D) Motor units from the omohyoid (A, B) and extraocular muscles (C, D) of young adult (A, C) and old (B, D) mice. E, F) Motor unit size in young adult and old omohyoid (E) and extraocular (F) muscles. Each bar represents mean ± SEM from at least 4 motor units per muscle and age. Scale bar = 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes"], "article_id"=>330371, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_related_changes_in_motor_unit_size_/330371", "title"=>"Age-related changes in motor unit size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:06:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/659648"], "description"=>"<p>A, B) EDL and Soleus muscles from 2 year-old mice were stained for Type 1 muscle fibers. Type 1 muscle fibers are found in old (A) but not young EDL muscles (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>). C, D) NMJs in Type I and Type II fibers exhibit age-related changes in EDL (C) and soleus (D). Each bar represents mean ± SEM. Scale bar = 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphology", "ii", "fibers"], "article_id"=>330132, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NMJ_morphology_in_Type_I_and_Type_II_muscle_fibers_of_old_mice_/330132", "title"=>"NMJ morphology in Type I and Type II muscle fibers of old mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/659046"], "description"=>"<p>Incidence of age-related alterations shown in NMJs from sternomastoid, Gracilis, Soleus Diaphragm, Gastrocnemis, Anal Sphincter, EDL and EOM. A) Fragmentation of the postsynaptic membrane. B) Decreased AChR density. C) Partial denervation. D) Complete denervation. E) Nerve terminal sprouting. F) Preterminal axonal distension. G) Axonal dystrophy. H) Multiple innervation of a single postsynaptic site. Values from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a> are replotted for comparison. Each point represents mean ±SEM from at least 3 animals, with at least 100 NMJs counted per animal. Dashed lines are drawn to emphasize that values for external anal sphincter, frontalis and EOM are generally lower than those from other muscles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alterations", "neuromuscular", "junction", "year-old"], "article_id"=>329538, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_related_alterations_in_neuromuscular_junction_of_2_year_old_mice_/329538", "title"=>"Age-related alterations in neuromuscular junction of 2 year-old mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 02:38:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/338464", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/338518", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/338549"], "description"=>"<div><p>Normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases both lead to structural and functional alterations in synapses. Comparison of synapses that are generally similar but respond differently to insults could provide the basis for discovering mechanisms that underlie susceptibility or resistance to damage. Here, we analyzed skeletal neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in 16 mouse muscles to seek such differences. We find that muscles respond in one of three ways to aging. In some, including most limb and trunk muscles, age-related alterations to NMJs are progressive and extensive during the second postnatal year. NMJs in other muscles, such as extraocular muscles, are strikingly resistant to change. A third set of muscles, including several muscles of facial expression and the external anal sphinter, succumb to aging but not until the third postnatal year. We asked whether susceptible and resistant muscles differed in rostrocaudal or proximodistal position, source of innervation, motor unit size, or fiber type composition. Of these factors, muscle innervation by brainstem motor neurons correlated best with resistance to age-related decline. Finally, we compared synaptic alterations in normally aging muscles to those in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Patterns of resistance and susceptibility were strikingly correlated in the two conditions. Moreover, damage to NMJs in aged muscles correlated with altered expression and distribution of CRMP4a and TDP-43, which are both altered in motor neurons affected by ALS. Together, these results reveal novel structural, regional and molecular parallels between aging and ALS.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aging", "als", "neuromuscular", "junctions", "muscles"], "article_id"=>126895, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Shared_Resistance_to_Aging_and_ALS_in_Neuromuscular_Junctions_of_Specific_Muscles/126895", "title"=>"Shared Resistance to Aging and ALS in Neuromuscular Junctions of Specific Muscles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 01:54:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/660178"], "description"=>"<p>A, B) Longitudinal sections from EDL (A) and EOM (B) of SOD-G93A mice transgenic mice. Axons and nerve terminals were stained with antibodies against neurofilament and synaptotagmin-2, (green) and postsynaptic sites were stained with BTX (red). Compare with young adult controls in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone.0034640.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a>. Alterations are striking in EDL but subtle in EOM. C) Alter ations quantified from images such as those shown in A–B. Each bar represents mean ± SEM from at least 3 animals, with at least 100 NMJs counted per animal. *p<0.02 by <i>t</i>-test. Scale bar = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junctions"], "article_id"=>330672, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neuromuscular_junctions_in_a_mouse_model_of_ALS_/330672", "title"=>"Neuromuscular junctions in a mouse model of ALS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:11:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/659777"], "description"=>"<p>A) Frontalis muscle of a young adult mouse in a simple motor axon was YFP-positive (green). The muscle was also labeled with BTX (red) to mark all postsynaptic sites. Scale bar: 50 µm. B) Motor unit size determined from muscles such as that in A. Bars indicate mean (±SD) of number of motor units in parentheses. Data on neck muscles (sternomastoid, clavotrapezius, and cleidomastoid) are replotted from Schaefer et al., (2005).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscles", "nmjs", "severity", "age-related"], "article_id"=>330265, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Motor_unit_size_in_muscles_with_NMJs_that_vary_in_severity_of_age_related_changes_/330265", "title"=>"Motor unit size in muscles with NMJs that vary in severity of age-related changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:04:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/660401"], "description"=>"<p>Values are from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 10</a>. NMJs in all muscles but the triangularis are similarly afflicted or spared by aging and ALS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "nmj", "alterations", "mice"], "article_id"=>330890, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_the_incidence_of_NMJ_alterations_in_old_mice_and_a_mouse_model_of_ALS_/330890", "title"=>"Relationship between the incidence of NMJ alterations in old mice and a mouse model of ALS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:14:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/660301"], "description"=>"<p>A, B) NMJs in muscles from symptomatic (A) or end-stage (B) SOD-G93A mice listed were scored as fully innervated, partially denervated or fully denervated. Values are shown for 14–16 weeks old symptomatic (A) and 19 weeks old end-stage mice (B). C) NMJs from soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of end stage mice, stained as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 9</a>. Scale bar = 10 µm. Some NMJs remain partially innervated in soleus, but most NMJs are fully denervated with dispersed postsynaptic structures in tibialis anterior.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["denervation", "muscles", "sod-g93a"], "article_id"=>330788, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extent_of_denervation_in_muscles_from_SOD_G93A_mice_/330788", "title"=>"Extent of denervation in muscles from SOD-G93A mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:13:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/659309"], "description"=>"<p>Muscles listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> are arranged by the rostrocaudal position of the motor pool that innervates them. The ordinate is the percentage of NMJs with age-associated defects from column 6 of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640#pone-0034640-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rostrocaudal", "segmental", "innervation", "incidence", "age-related", "alterations"], "article_id"=>329793, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_of_rostrocaudal_position_and_segmental_innervation_to_the_incidence_of_age_related_alterations_in_NMJs_/329793", "title"=>"Relationship of rostrocaudal position and segmental innervation to the incidence of age-related alterations in NMJs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 02:43:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/660723"], "description"=>"<p>Columns 2 and 3 show the percentage of NMJs in young adult and old muscles that exhibit one or more of five structural features that characterize old NMJs in limb muscles: decreased AChR density, partial denervation, complete denervation, nerve terminal sprouting, fragmentation of the postsynaptic membrane. Column 4 and 5 show values for only the first four of these features, taking account of the fact that the postsynaptic membrane is fragmented in young adult NMJs in some muscles. Column 6 shows difference between values in columns 4 and 5. Values represent average (and SD) from at least 3 animals, with at least 100 NMJs counted per animal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmjs", "exhibiting", "age-related"], "article_id"=>331210, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fraction_of_NMJs_exhibiting_one_or_more_age_related_alterations_/331210", "title"=>"Fraction of NMJs exhibiting one or more age-related alterations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:20:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/660490"], "description"=>"<p>A–D) CRMP4a immunoreactivity of motor neurons in caudal spinal cord (SC) from young adult wild type (A), old wild-type (B) and symptomatic SOD-G93A (C) mice and brainstem (BS) of a symptomatic SOD-G93A mouse (D). Somata are labeled with Neurotrace (A, B, D) or YFP (C). E) Percent of motor neurons immunoreactive for CRMP4a in spinal cord and brainstem of young adult, old, and symptomatic SOD-G93A mice. Each bar represents mean ± SEM. *p<0.015 by <i>t</i>-test. Scale bar = 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crmp4a", "aging"], "article_id"=>330975, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Gregorio Valdez", "Juan C. Tapia", "Jeff W. Lichtman", "Michael A. Fox", "Joshua R. Sanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034640.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regulation_of_CRMP4a_in_aging_and_ALS_/330975", "title"=>"Regulation of CRMP4a in aging and ALS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-02 00:16:15"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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