Airflow Dynamics of Coughing in Healthy Human Volunteers by Shadowgraph Imaging: An Aid to Aerosol Infection Control
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{"title"=>"Airflow dynamics of coughing in healthy human volunteers by shadowgraph imaging: An aid to aerosol infection control", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julian W.", "last_name"=>"Tang", "scopus_author_id"=>"10341387300"}, {"first_name"=>"Andre", "last_name"=>"Nicolle", "scopus_author_id"=>"37034669800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jovan", "last_name"=>"Pantelic", "scopus_author_id"=>"35272981200"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerald C.", "last_name"=>"Koh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55615477100"}, {"first_name"=>"Liang", "last_name"=>"de Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55193014500"}, {"first_name"=>"Muhammad", "last_name"=>"Amin", "scopus_author_id"=>"56357876800"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian A.", "last_name"=>"Klettner", "scopus_author_id"=>"35484365400"}, {"first_name"=>"David K W", "last_name"=>"Cheong", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005497222"}, {"first_name"=>"Chandra", "last_name"=>"Sekhar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003540546"}, {"first_name"=>"Kwok Wai", "last_name"=>"Tham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004310695"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84859976606", "sgr"=>"84859976606", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0034818", "pmid"=>"22536332", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"364661756"}, "id"=>"dc100afd-219f-3338-b334-bb83d370fdc9", "abstract"=>"Cough airflow dynamics have been previously studied using a variety of experimental methods. In this study, real-time, non-invasive shadowgraph imaging was applied to obtain additional analyses of cough airflows produced by healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers (10 women, mean age 32.2±12.9 years; 10 men, mean age 25.3±2.5 years) were asked to cough freely, then into their sleeves (as per current US CDC recommendations) in this study to analyze cough airflow dynamics. For the 10 females (cases 1-10), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.16-0.55 m, with maximum derived velocities of 2.2-5.0 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.010-0.11 m(2), with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.15-0.55 m(2)/s. For the 10 males (cases 11-20), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.31-0.64 m, with maximum derived velocities of 3.2-14 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.04-0.14 m(2), with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.25-1.4 m(2)/s. These peak velocities were measured when the visibility of the exhaled airflows was optimal and compare favorably with those reported previously using other methods, and may be seen as a validation of these previous approaches in a more natural setting. However, the propagation distances can only represent a lower limit due to the inability of the shadowgraph method to visualize these cough airflows once their temperature cools to that of the ambient air, which is an important limitation of this methodology. The qualitative high-speed video footage of these volunteers coughing into their sleeves demonstrates that although this method rarely completely blocks the cough airflow, it decelerates, splits and redirects the airflow, eventually reducing its propagation. The effectiveness of this intervention depends on optimum positioning of the arm over the nose and mouth during coughing, though unsightly stains on sleeves may make it unacceptable to some.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/airflow-dynamics-coughing-healthy-human-volunteers-shadowgraph-imaging-aid-aerosol-infection-control", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>11, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Energy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>11}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649745"], "description"=>"<p>These types of images were used to obtain the cough dynamic parameters shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818#pone-0034818-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>. The blue crosses in image B represent the (x,y) coordinates of the digitized airflow boundary at that point, as seen by one of the independent observers. The software algorithm measured the resolved detectable distance in the ‘x’ direction (B), as this was the clinically important parameter reflecting the horizontal propagation distance of the cough. It also measured the maximum detectable 2-D projected area resolved in the horizontal direction of the cough as seen in the side-on view of the shadowgraph visualization of the cough aerosol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["digitized", "shadowgraph"], "article_id"=>320231, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Gerald C. Koh", "Liang De Wang", "Muhammad Amin", "Christian A. Klettner", "David K. W. Cheong", "Chandra Sekhar", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_a_8216_before_8217_A_and_8216_after_8217_B_digitized_shadowgraph_image_of_a_human_volunteer_coughing_/320231", "title"=>"Example of a ‘before’ (A) and ‘after’ (B) digitized shadowgraph image of a human volunteer coughing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-20 00:03:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/650031"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of the 20 healthy human volunteers used in the cough imaging.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["20", "volunteers", "cough"], "article_id"=>320514, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Gerald C. Koh", "Liang De Wang", "Muhammad Amin", "Christian A. Klettner", "David K. W. Cheong", "Chandra Sekhar", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_20_healthy_human_volunteers_used_in_the_cough_imaging_/320514", "title"=>"Characteristics of the 20 healthy human volunteers used in the cough imaging.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-20 00:08:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/334293"], "description"=>"<div><p>Cough airflow dynamics have been previously studied using a variety of experimental methods. In this study, real-time, non-invasive shadowgraph imaging was applied to obtain additional analyses of cough airflows produced by healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers (10 women, mean age 32.2±12.9 years; 10 men, mean age 25.3±2.5 years) were asked to cough freely, then into their sleeves (as per current US CDC recommendations) in this study to analyze cough airflow dynamics. For the 10 females (cases 1–10), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.16–0.55 m, with maximum derived velocities of 2.2–5.0 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.010–0.11 m<sup>2</sup>, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.15–0.55 m<sup>2</sup>/s. For the 10 males (cases 11–20), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.31–0.64 m, with maximum derived velocities of 3.2–14 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.04–0.14 m<sup>2</sup>, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.25–1.4 m<sup>2</sup>/s.</p> <p>These peak velocities were measured when the visibility of the exhaled airflows was optimal and compare favorably with those reported previously using other methods, and may be seen as a validation of these previous approaches in a more natural setting. However, the propagation distances can only represent a lower limit due to the inability of the shadowgraph method to visualize these cough airflows once their temperature cools to that of the ambient air, which is an important limitation of this methodology.</p> <p>The qualitative high-speed video footage of these volunteers coughing into their sleeves demonstrates that although this method rarely completely blocks the cough airflow, it decelerates, splits and redirects the airflow, eventually reducing its propagation. The effectiveness of this intervention depends on optimum positioning of the arm over the nose and mouth during coughing, though unsightly stains on sleeves may make it unacceptable to some.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["airflow", "coughing", "volunteers", "shadowgraph", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>126032, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Gerald C. Koh", "Liang De Wang", "Muhammad Amin", "Christian A. Klettner", "David K. W. Cheong", "Chandra Sekhar", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>52, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Airflow_Dynamics_of_Coughing_in_Healthy_Human_Volunteers_by_Shadowgraph_Imaging_An_Aid_to_Aerosol_Infection_Control/126032", "title"=>"Airflow Dynamics of Coughing in Healthy Human Volunteers by Shadowgraph Imaging: An Aid to Aerosol Infection Control", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2012-04-20 01:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649660"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic of the layout with the large, 1-m diameter, spherical concave f/5 mirror and subject test area at one end, and the high-speed camera with the LED light-source and the image capture system (laptop) approximately 10 m away at the other end of the environmental chamber. Note that the schematic diagram has been shown previously to describe this experimental set-up <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818#pone.0034818-Tang1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["set-up", "shadowgraph", "imaging"], "article_id"=>320139, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Gerald C. Koh", "Liang De Wang", "Muhammad Amin", "Christian A. Klettner", "David K. W. Cheong", "Chandra Sekhar", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_set_up_of_the_shadowgraph_imaging_system_/320139", "title"=>"Experimental set-up of the shadowgraph imaging system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-20 00:02:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649859"], "description"=>"<p>These demonstrate the cough airflow dynamic parameters measured in these experiments. <b>A</b>: cough ‘propagation distance-velocity-time’; <b>B:</b> ‘2-D projected area-expansion rate-time’. The parameters digitized directly from the recorded images (propagation distance and 2-D area) are shown by solid red lines with the actual data points as empty circles, with reference to the left y-axis, labeled with the red font. The derived parameters (velocity and 2-D area expansion rate) are shown by thinner, dotted blue lines, with reference to the right y-axis, labeled with the blue font.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "coughs", "produced", "20"], "article_id"=>320343, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Gerald C. Koh", "Liang De Wang", "Muhammad Amin", "Christian A. Klettner", "David K. W. Cheong", "Chandra Sekhar", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Combined_plots_of_all_the_coughs_produced_by_the_20_healthy_volunteers_/320343", "title"=>"Combined plots of all the coughs produced by the 20 healthy volunteers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-20 00:05:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649960"], "description"=>"<p>This demonstrates the typical bifurcation of the cough air-stream as a volunteer coughs into his sleeve.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shadowgraph", "cough", "captured"], "article_id"=>320440, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Gerald C. Koh", "Liang De Wang", "Muhammad Amin", "Christian A. Klettner", "David K. W. Cheong", "Chandra Sekhar", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034818.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_shadowgraph_still_image_of_a_cough_captured_from_video_/320440", "title"=>"A shadowgraph still image of a cough captured from video.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-20 00:07:20"}

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Relative Metric

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