Antibiotic Resistance Is Prevalent in an Isolated Cave Microbiome
Publication Date
April 11, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Kirandeep Bhullar, Nicholas Waglechner, Andrew Pawlowski, Kalinka Koteva, et al
Volume
7
Issue
4
Pages
e34953
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0034953
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22509370
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3324550
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22509370
Web of Science
000305336600068
Scopus
84859574738
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/antibiotic-resistance-prevalent-isolated-cave-microbiome
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in an isolated cave microbiome", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kirandeep", "last_name"=>"Bhullar", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194631138"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas", "last_name"=>"Waglechner", "scopus_author_id"=>"52664694300"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Pawlowski", "scopus_author_id"=>"55179995100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kalinka", "last_name"=>"Koteva", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506915381"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric D.", "last_name"=>"Banks", "scopus_author_id"=>"36458244300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Johnston", "scopus_author_id"=>"55180071600"}, {"first_name"=>"Hazel A.", "last_name"=>"Barton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102847137"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerard D.", "last_name"=>"Wright", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402848763"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84859574738", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0034953", "sgr"=>"84859574738", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22509370", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364606648"}, "id"=>"6f494850-af61-3454-856c-a553f87b3768", "abstract"=>"Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotics. The origin of the genes associated with this resistance is of significant importance to our understanding of the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. A growing body of evidence implicates environmental organisms as reservoirs of these resistance genes; however, the role of anthropogenic use of antibiotics in the emergence of these genes is controversial. We report a screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years. We report that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics. Resistance was detected to a wide range of structurally different antibiotics including daptomycin, an antibiotic of last resort in the treatment of drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Enzyme-mediated mechanisms of resistance were also discovered for natural and semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotics via glycosylation and through a kinase-mediated phosphorylation mechanism. Sequencing of the genome of one of the resistant bacteria identified a macrolide kinase encoding gene and characterization of its product revealed it to be related to a known family of kinases circulating in modern drug resistant pathogens. The implications of this study are significant to our understanding of the prevalence of resistance, even in microbiomes isolated from human use of antibiotics. This supports a growing understanding that antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/antibiotic-resistance-prevalent-isolated-cave-microbiome", "reader_count"=>493, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Researcher"=>98, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>33, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>120, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>78, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>82, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Researcher"=>98, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>33, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>120, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>78, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>82, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>257, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>11, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>27, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>51, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>63, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>9, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>26}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>63}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>21}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>27}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>9}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>11}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>26}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>257}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>51}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>19, "Egypt"=>1, "Uzbekistan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Ghana"=>1, "Portugal"=>3, "India"=>2, "Spain"=>2, "Russia"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Denmark"=>3, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>3, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Estonia"=>1}, "group_count"=>22}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84859574738"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84859574738?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84859574738&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84859574738&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84859574738", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84859574738", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84859574738", "dc:title"=>"Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in an isolated cave microbiome", "dc:creator"=>"Bhullar K.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"4", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-04-16", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0034953", "citedby-count"=>"251", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences", "affiliation-city"=>"Hamilton", "affiliation-country"=>"Canada"}], "pubmed-id"=>"22509370", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e34953", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0034953", "share_count"=>2, "like_count"=>1, "comment_count"=>1, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>4}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"1585", "xml_views"=>"29", "html_views"=>"7443"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"321", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"1388"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"184", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"782"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"136", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"520"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"90", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"410"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"112", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"527"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"143", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"778"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"133", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"614"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"102", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"702"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"130", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"858"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"121", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"1303"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"107", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1070"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"83", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"703"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"472"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"271"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"297"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"233"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"393"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"84", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"524"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"79", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"553"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"515"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"90", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"474"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"77", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"481"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"616"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"624"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"98", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"638"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"69", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"499"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"64", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"522"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"511"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"526"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"97", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"961"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"986"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"594"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"475"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"342"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"349"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"478"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"90", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"310"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"217"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"264"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"245"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"295"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"336"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"350"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"353"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"251"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"292"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"367"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"107", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"411"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"72", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"286"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"75", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"293"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"62", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"261"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"91", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"445"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"119", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"532"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"488"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"132", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"809"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"677"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"541"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"97", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"578"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"100", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"463"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"100", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"424"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"296"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"77", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"294"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"220"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"74", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"317"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"127", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"514"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"79", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"495"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"431"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"94", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"360"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"104", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"267"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"288"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"98", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"265"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"198"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"79", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"79", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"130", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"263"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"158", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"337"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"240", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"247"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"108", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"172"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"291", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"194"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"276", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"290", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"261"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"185", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"78"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655396"], "description"=>"<p>Heat Plot for (A) Gram-positive strains (B) Gram-negative strains against various antibiotics. Antibiotics are grouped according to their mode of action and the gradient from light blue to dark blue represents the range from lowest MIC value (0.3 µg/ml) to highest MIC value (256 µg/ml) as shown in the legend. White means no MIC was determined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibiotics"], "article_id"=>325883, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MIC_of_antibiotics_determined_in_this_study_/325883", "title"=>"MIC of antibiotics determined in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655733"], "description"=>"<p>1- GTP held at 200 µM for antibiotic substrates, 2-erythomycin held at 400 µM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters", "mph"], "article_id"=>326220, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinetic_parameters_for_MPH_2_II_from_B_paraconglomeratum_/326220", "title"=>"Kinetic parameters for MPH (2′)-II from <i>B. paraconglomeratum.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:43:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/336730", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/336867", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/336925", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/336960", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337013", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337058", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337097", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337141", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337223", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337286", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337333", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337385", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/337448"], "description"=>"<div><p>Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotics. The origin of the genes associated with this resistance is of significant importance to our understanding of the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. A growing body of evidence implicates environmental organisms as reservoirs of these resistance genes; however, the role of anthropogenic use of antibiotics in the emergence of these genes is controversial. We report a screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years. We report that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics. Resistance was detected to a wide range of structurally different antibiotics including daptomycin, an antibiotic of last resort in the treatment of drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Enzyme-mediated mechanisms of resistance were also discovered for natural and semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotics via glycosylation and through a kinase-mediated phosphorylation mechanism. Sequencing of the genome of one of the resistant bacteria identified a macrolide kinase encoding gene and characterization of its product revealed it to be related to a known family of kinases circulating in modern drug resistant pathogens. The implications of this study are significant to our understanding of the prevalence of resistance, even in microbiomes isolated from human use of antibiotics. This supports a growing understanding that antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibiotic", "prevalent", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>126535, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.s013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>21, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Antibiotic_Resistance_Is_Prevalent_in_an_Isolated_Cave_Microbiome/126535", "title"=>"Antibiotic Resistance Is Prevalent in an Isolated Cave Microbiome", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:48:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655698"], "description"=>"<p>Strains were grown in 50% TSB for 5 days in presence of 20 µg/ml antibiotic. Conditional media was used for setting up disk diffusion assays and LC-MS analyses. Inactivation was defined as the absence of a zone of clearance around the disk. Hydrolytic mechanism of ß-lactam resistance is inferred.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibiotic", "inactivation", "studies", "gram-negative"], "article_id"=>326182, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_Antibiotic_Inactivation_Studies_for_Gram_Negative_Isolates_/326182", "title"=>"Summary of Antibiotic Inactivation Studies for Gram-Negative Isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:43:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655807"], "description"=>"<p>1- GTP held at 200 µM for antibiotic substrates, 2-erythomycin held at 400 µM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters", "mph", "dsm"], "article_id"=>326292, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinetic_parameters_for_MPH_2_II_from_B_faecium_DSM_4810_/326292", "title"=>"Kinetic parameters for MPH (2′)-II from <i>B. faecium</i> DSM 4810.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:44:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655479"], "description"=>"<p>After incubation of <i>B. paraconglomeratum</i> in the presence of 20 µg/ml telithromycin, chemical modification was determined by the loss of antimicrobial activity of the clarified culture supernatant associated with modification of telithromycin as assessed by LC-MS. LC-MS analysis of the resulting inactive extract indicated a shift of retention time and an increase in <i>m/z</i> by 80 consistent with phosphorylation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["telithromycin"], "article_id"=>325966, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inactivation_of_Telithromycin_by_B_paraconglomeratum_strain_LC44_/325966", "title"=>"Inactivation of Telithromycin by <i>B. paraconglomeratum</i> strain LC44.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:39:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655128"], "description"=>"<p>The sites where microbial strains were collected (LCECE, LCDS1 and LCEA1) are shown relative to the entrance and depth. tN represents true North on the plan, while the profile has an exaggerated vertical profile of 1.5×.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maps", "lechuguilla", "carlsbad", "caverns"], "article_id"=>325611, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>71, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plan_and_profile_maps_of_Lechuguilla_Cave_Carlsbad_Caverns_National_Park_New_Mexico_/325611", "title"=>"Plan and profile maps of Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:33:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655264"], "description"=>"<p>Antibiotics are grouped according to their mode of action/target, where each color represents a different target.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "lechuguilla", "20", "gram-positive", "strains", "gram-negative"], "article_id"=>325751, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Resistance_levels_of_Lechuguilla_cave_bacteria_at_20_181_g_ml_against_various_antibiotics_top_Gram_positive_strains_bottom_Gram_negative_strains_/325751", "title"=>"Resistance levels of Lechuguilla cave bacteria at 20 µg/ml against various antibiotics: (top) Gram-positive strains (bottom) Gram-negative strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655775"], "description"=>"<p>Strains were grown in 50% TSB for 5 days in presence of 20 µg/ml antibiotic. Conditional media was used for setting up disk diffusion assays and LC-MS analyses. Inactivation was defined as the absence of a zone of clearance around the disk. Hydrolytic mechanism of ß-lactam resistance is inferred.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibiotic", "inactivation", "studies", "gram-positive"], "article_id"=>326262, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_Antibiotic_Inactivation_Studies_for_Gram_positive_Isolates_/326262", "title"=>"Summary of Antibiotic Inactivation Studies for Gram-positive Isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:44:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655615"], "description"=>"<p>A genetic map was constructed using available genome sequences of <i>Brachybacterium</i> strains and shown above is a schematic of translated protein query based on BLAST analysis. The MPH sequence is shown in red and homologous sequences are marked with identical colors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes"], "article_id"=>326102, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_context_of_mph_genes_in_Brachybacterium_strains_/326102", "title"=>"Genetic context of <i>mph</i> genes in <i>Brachybacterium</i> strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655537"], "description"=>"<p>LC231 was cultured in TSB supplemented with 1.25 mM CaCl<sub>2</sub> and 4 µg/ml daptomycin added from start (zero time point) (1) or early log phase (2). Growth was compared to growth control with no drug (3). Arrow represents the time point at which daptomycin was added during early log phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["daptomycin"], "article_id"=>326034, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Kirandeep Bhullar", "Nicholas Waglechner", "Andrew Pawlowski", "Kalinka Koteva", "Eric D. Banks", "Michael D. Johnston", "Hazel A. Barton", "Gerard D. Wright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034953.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Induction_of_daptomycin_resistance_in_Paenibacillus_lautus_LC231_/326034", "title"=>"Induction of daptomycin resistance in <i>Paenibacillus lautus</i> LC231.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-11 01:40:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"117", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"81", "unique-ip"=>"108", "figure"=>"50", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"136", "unique-ip"=>"126", "pdf"=>"72", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"46", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"77", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"68", "unique-ip"=>"66", "figure"=>"19", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"30", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"58", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"71", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"86", "full-text"=>"164", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"55", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"40", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"69", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"40", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"58", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"30", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"84", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"64", "full-text"=>"82", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"110", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"32", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"68", "full-text"=>"91", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"22", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"19", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"65", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"19", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Mycology", "average_usage"=>[375, 602, 746, 847, 942, 1060, 1162, 1258, 1358, 1453, 1528, 1646, 1768, 1830, 1928, 1980, 2060, 2153, 2240, 2316, 2380, 2453, 2540, 2617, 2695]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[368, 548, 649, 749, 833, 915, 993, 1071, 1153, 1240, 1315, 1388, 1456, 1520, 1597, 1673, 1747, 1826, 1892, 1975, 2036, 2101, 2178, 2256, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geomorphology", "average_usage"=>[312, 487, 576, 655, 721, 800, 874, 944, 1003, 1057, 1109, 1177, 1231, 1273, 1318, 1389, 1473, 1552, 1599, 1646, 1690, 1762, 1819, 1855, 1903, 1954]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[314, 554, 687, 796, 891, 983, 1075, 1170, 1261, 1340, 1422, 1504, 1574, 1647, 1715, 1786, 1848, 1919, 1990, 2053, 2115, 2197, 2258, 2333, 2395]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts