Cultural Phylogenetics of the Tupi Language Family in Lowland South America
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{"title"=>"Cultural phylogenetics of the tupi language family in lowland south america", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert S.", "last_name"=>"Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"55725451500"}, {"first_name"=>"Søren", "last_name"=>"Wichmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"15064658700"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Mailund", "scopus_author_id"=>"14619483800"}, {"first_name"=>"Curtis J.", "last_name"=>"Atkisson", "scopus_author_id"=>"36727153700"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84859613218", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0035025", "pui"=>"364605632", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22506065", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84859613218"}, "id"=>"65da91e9-f96d-3c82-a100-72457c27d743", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Recent advances in automated assessment of basic vocabulary lists allow the construction of linguistic phylogenies useful for tracing dynamics of human population expansions, reconstructing ancestral cultures, and modeling transition rates of cultural traits over time.\\n\\nMETHODS: Here we investigate the Tupi expansion, a widely-dispersed language family in lowland South America, with a distance-based phylogeny based on 40-word vocabulary lists from 48 languages. We coded 11 cultural traits across the diverse Tupi family including traditional warfare patterns, post-marital residence, corporate structure, community size, paternity beliefs, sibling terminology, presence of canoes, tattooing, shamanism, men's houses, and lip plugs.\\n\\nRESULTS/DISCUSSION: The linguistic phylogeny supports a Tupi homeland in west-central Brazil with subsequent major expansions across much of lowland South America. Consistently, ancestral reconstructions of cultural traits over the linguistic phylogeny suggest that social complexity has tended to decline through time, most notably in the independent emergence of several nomadic hunter-gatherer societies. Estimated rates of cultural change across the Tupi expansion are on the order of only a few changes per 10,000 years, in accord with previous cultural phylogenetic results in other language families around the world, and indicate a conservative nature to much of human culture.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cultural-phylogenetics-tupi-language-family-lowland-south-america", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Linguistics"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>8}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655444"], "description"=>"<p>Locations of cultures are connected by the Neighbor Joining tree from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone-0035025-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a> with internal nodes interpolated as the average spatial location of tip entities (or descendant nodes). The 4 earliest clades to diverge are in the Tupi homeland in the state of Rondonia, Brazil (societies marked in green). The next 4 clades to diverge represent an expansion mostly to the north and east (societies in yellow). Next, Tupi-Guarani speakers (societies in red) expanded in several waves to the south and later in a wide expansion to the northeast, far up the Amazon River, along the Atlantic seaboard, and a back migration to the homeland.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tupi"], "article_id"=>325933, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert S. Walker", "Søren Wichmann", "Thomas Mailund", "Curtis J. Atkisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeography_of_the_Tupi_expansion_/325933", "title"=>"Phylogeography of the Tupi expansion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-10 01:38:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655667"], "description"=>"<p>Results are from Bayesian or maximum likelihood studies using character-based linguistic phylogenies that report transition rates (<i>q</i>'s) between cultural states. Double-letter subscripts in transition rates correspond to capital letters in the “Possible states” column. For example, in the Austronesian phylogeny, the transition rate of change from matrilocality to patrilocality (<i>q<sub>MP</sub></i>) is 20.1 per 10 ky. Likely ancestral roots are given with posterior probabilities in parentheses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "indo-european"], "article_id"=>326165, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert S. Walker", "Søren Wichmann", "Thomas Mailund", "Curtis J. Atkisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cultural_phylogenetic_results_for_Austronesian_Bantu_and_Indo_European_language_families_/326165", "title"=>"Cultural phylogenetic results for Austronesian, Bantu, and Indo-European language families.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-10 01:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655280"], "description"=>"<p>Proto-Carib is used as an outgroup, licensed by the proposal that Carib and Tupi are ultimately related <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-Rodrigues2\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-Salzano1\" target=\"_blank\">[76]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-CallegariJacques1\" target=\"_blank\">[77]</a>. Clades sort into generally accepted linguistic subdivisions of the Tupi language family (clade labels). A rough time line is provided assuming the Tupi-Guarani expansion had begun by nearly 3,000 years ago based on radiocarbon dates from purported Tupi archaeological sites on the Brazilian coast <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-Noelli1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-Macario1\" target=\"_blank\">[96]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-ScheelYbert1\" target=\"_blank\">[97]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["joining", "provenanced", "tupi", "languages", "14", "asjp"], "article_id"=>325762, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert S. Walker", "Søren Wichmann", "Thomas Mailund", "Curtis J. Atkisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neighbor_Joining_tree_of_all_provenanced_Tupi_languages_in_Version_14_of_the_ASJP_database_68_/325762", "title"=>"Neighbor Joining tree of all provenanced Tupi languages in Version 14 of the ASJP database [68].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-10 01:36:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655563"], "description"=>"<p>The entire sample combined is shown on the top panel (<i>n</i> = 59).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "rates", "units", "10", "ky", "linguistic", "phylogenies", "compared", "tupi"], "article_id"=>326044, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert S. Walker", "Søren Wichmann", "Thomas Mailund", "Curtis J. Atkisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distributions_of_cultural_transition_rates_in_units_per_10_ky_for_several_linguistic_phylogenies_Table_2_compared_to_Tupi_transition_rates_/326044", "title"=>"Frequency distributions of cultural transition rates in units per 10 ky for several linguistic phylogenies (Table 2) compared to Tupi transition rates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-04-10 01:40:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/655643"], "description"=>"<p>Ancestral reconstructions and transition rate estimates are given for 11 cultural traits in the Tupi language family. Cultural traits are ranked in order of increasing transition rates. Traits with slower transition rates are associated with higher certainties of ancestral root reconstruction (values in parentheses). Significant ancestral reconstructions are marked with an asterisk. Average gains and losses of traits across the tree are calculated from 1,000 stochastic character mapping reconstructions <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-Bollback1\" target=\"_blank\">[88]</a> in Mesquite software <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025#pone.0035025-Maddison1\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>. “Gains” in post-marital residence are defined as those from more flexible ambi/neolocality to either uxorilocality or virilocality, and vice-versa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic"], "article_id"=>326137, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert S. Walker", "Søren Wichmann", "Thomas Mailund", "Curtis J. Atkisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tupi_cultural_phylogenetic_results_/326137", "title"=>"Tupi cultural phylogenetic results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-04-10 01:42:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/336761", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/336917", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/336989"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Recent advances in automated assessment of basic vocabulary lists allow the construction of linguistic phylogenies useful for tracing dynamics of human population expansions, reconstructing ancestral cultures, and modeling transition rates of cultural traits over time.</p> <h3>Methods</h3><p>Here we investigate the Tupi expansion, a widely-dispersed language family in lowland South America, with a distance-based phylogeny based on 40-word vocabulary lists from 48 languages. We coded 11 cultural traits across the diverse Tupi family including traditional warfare patterns, post-marital residence, corporate structure, community size, paternity beliefs, sibling terminology, presence of canoes, tattooing, shamanism, men's houses, and lip plugs.</p> <h3>Results/Discussion</h3><p>The linguistic phylogeny supports a Tupi homeland in west-central Brazil with subsequent major expansions across much of lowland South America. Consistently, ancestral reconstructions of cultural traits over the linguistic phylogeny suggest that social complexity has tended to decline through time, most notably in the independent emergence of several nomadic hunter-gatherer societies. Estimated rates of cultural change across the Tupi expansion are on the order of only a few changes per 10,000 years, in accord with previous cultural phylogenetic results in other language families around the world, and indicate a conservative nature to much of human culture.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetics", "tupi", "lowland", "america"], "article_id"=>126552, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert S. Walker", "Søren Wichmann", "Thomas Mailund", "Curtis J. Atkisson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035025.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cultural_Phylogenetics_of_the_Tupi_Language_Family_in_Lowland_South_America/126552", "title"=>"Cultural Phylogenetics of the Tupi Language Family in Lowland South America", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-04-10 01:49:12"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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