Leishmaniasis Worldwide and Global Estimates of Its Incidence
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{"title"=>"Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Alvar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006875837"}, {"first_name"=>"Iván D.", "last_name"=>"Vélez", "scopus_author_id"=>"35510718400"}, {"first_name"=>"Caryn", "last_name"=>"Bern", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005785891"}, {"first_name"=>"Mercé", "last_name"=>"Herrero", "scopus_author_id"=>"27267672600"}, {"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Desjeux", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005134243"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Cano", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201865982"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean", "last_name"=>"Jannin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603970128"}, {"first_name"=>"Margrietn", "last_name"=>"de Boer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55235530500"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22693548", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0035671", "arxiv"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0035671", "pui"=>"364923396", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861665791", "sgr"=>"84861665791"}, "id"=>"f67dc3af-bdbe-326e-a788-623e4f56e755", "abstract"=>"As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see 'Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101'). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/leishmaniasis-worldwide-global-estimates-incidence-2", "reader_count"=>1393, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>48, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>38, "Librarian"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>120, "Researcher"=>158, "Student > Ph. D. 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"https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476557"], "description"=>"<div><p>As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see ‘Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101’). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, together account for 70 to 75% of global estimated CL incidence. Mortality data were extremely sparse and generally represent hospital-based deaths only. Using an overall case-fatality rate of 10%, we reach a tentative estimate of 20,000 to 40,000 leishmaniasis deaths per year. Although the information is very poor in a number of countries, this is the first in-depth exercise to better estimate the real impact of leishmaniasis. These data should help to define control strategies and reinforce leishmaniasis advocacy.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leishmaniasis", "estimates", "incidence"], "article_id"=>153769, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s015", 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"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.s101"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Leishmaniasis_Worldwide_and_Global_Estimates_of_Its_Incidence/153769", "title"=>"Leishmaniasis Worldwide and Global Estimates of Its Incidence", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 01:02:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629682"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered moderate (2.0–4.0-fold; based on lower proportion of cases treated in private sector compared to India).</p>2<p>Underreporting range based on 2 assessments in Bihar <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671#pone.0035671-Singh1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671#pone.0035671-Singh2\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "visceral", "leishmaniasis", "indian", "subcontinent"], "article_id"=>300169, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_visceral_leishmaniasis_in_the_Indian_subcontinent_and_Southeast_Asia_/300169", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:02:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629721"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered mild (2.8–4.6-fold) based on data from Argentina <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671#pone.0035671-Yadon1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "cutaneous", "leishmaniasis", "american"], "article_id"=>300209, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_cutaneous_leishmaniasis_in_the_American_region_/300209", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the American region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:03:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629757"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered mild (1.2–1.8-fold).</p>2<p>Underreporting considered moderate (2–4-fold).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "visceral", "leishmaniasis", "mediterranean"], "article_id"=>300244, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_visceral_leishmaniasis_in_the_Mediterranean_region_/300244", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:04:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629797"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered moderate (2–4-fold).</p>2<p>Underreporting considered mild (1.2–1.8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "visceral", "leishmaniasis"], "article_id"=>300281, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_visceral_leishmaniasis_in_the_Middle_East_to_Central_Asia_/300281", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Middle East to Central Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:04:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629845"], "description"=>"<p>Reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the sub-Saharan African region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "visceral", "leishmaniasis", "sub-saharan", "african"], "article_id"=>300325, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_visceral_leishmaniasis_in_the_sub_Saharan_African_region_/300325", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the sub-Saharan African region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:05:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629877"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered moderate (2–4-fold).</p>2<p>Underreporting considered severe (4.2–8.1-fold).</p>3<p>Underreporting considered mild (1.2–1.8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "visceral", "leishmaniasis", "african"], "article_id"=>300363, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_visceral_leishmaniasis_in_the_East_African_region_/300363", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the East African region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:06:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629915"], "description"=>"*<p>3/3 (100%) of high burden countries (India, Bangladesh, Nepal) reported 5 years of data. Reports incomplete for Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Thailand.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reported", "incidence", "visceral"], "article_id"=>300397, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_visceral_leishmaniasis_/300397", "title"=>"Global reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:06:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629958"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered moderate (2–4-fold) based on recent introduction of VL into the country.</p>2<p>Underreporting considered mild (1.2–1.8-fold) based on data from Brazil <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671#pone.0035671-MaiaElkhoury1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "visceral", "leishmaniasis", "american"], "article_id"=>300445, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_visceral_leishmaniasis_in_the_American_region_/300445", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the American region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:07:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629995"], "description"=>"<p>Global reported and estimated incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reported", "incidence", "cutaneous"], "article_id"=>300484, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_cutaneous_leishmaniasis_/300484", "title"=>"Global reported and estimated incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:08:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630041"], "description"=>"1<p>Based on estimates by Dr RA Bumb, Department of Skin, STD and Leprosy, SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.</p>2<p>Underreporting considered mild (2.8–4.6) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671#pone.0035671-Yadon1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "cutaneous", "leishmaniasis", "indian"], "article_id"=>300529, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_cutaneous_leishmaniasis_in_the_Indian_subcontinent_/300529", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:08:49"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630128"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered moderate (5–10-fold).</p>2<p>Based on conference report (Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia and World Health Organization. Consultative meeting for the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia; June 4–5, 2011; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia).</p>3<p>Based on estimates by Dr. Nuha Hamid, national project officer, WHO-Khartoum, Sudan (see Annex).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "cutaneous", "leishmaniasis", "african"], "article_id"=>300616, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_cutaneous_leishmaniasis_in_the_East_African_region_/300616", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the East African region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:10:16"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630209"], "description"=>"1<p>Underreporting considered mild (2.8–4.6) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671#pone.0035671-Yadon1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "cutaneous", "leishmaniasis"], "article_id"=>300698, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Jorge Alvar", "Iván D. Vélez", "Caryn Bern", "Mercé Herrero", "Philippe Desjeux", "Jorge Cano", "Jean Jannin", "Margriet den Boer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.t010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_estimated_incidence_of_cutaneous_leishmaniasis_in_the_Mediterranean_/300698", "title"=>"Reported and estimated incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-31 00:11:38"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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