Sphingomyelinase D Activity in Model Membranes: Structural Effects of in situ Generation of Ceramide-1-Phosphate
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{"title"=>"Sphingomyelinase D Activity in Model Membranes: Structural Effects of in situ Generation of Ceramide-1-Phosphate", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roberto P.", "last_name"=>"Stock"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan", "last_name"=>"Brewer"}, {"first_name"=>"Kerstin", "last_name"=>"Wagner"}, {"first_name"=>"Blanca", "last_name"=>"Ramos-Cerrillo"}, {"first_name"=>"Lars", "last_name"=>"Duelund"}, {"first_name"=>"Kit Drescher", "last_name"=>"Jernshøj"}, {"first_name"=>"Lars Folke", "last_name"=>"Olsen"}, {"first_name"=>"Luis A.", "last_name"=>"Bagatolli"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84865826861", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0036003", "pui"=>"365580378", "pmid"=>"22558302", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865826861", "issn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"e2611b22-f8ff-3815-a29a-7d998c9ad505", "abstract"=>"The toxicity of Loxosceles spider venom has been attributed to a rare enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which transforms sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate. The bases of its inflammatory and dermonecrotic activity, however, remain unclear. In this work the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate on model membranes were studied both by in situ generation of this lipid using a recombinant sphingomyelinase D from the spider Loxosceles laeta and by pre-mixing it with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The systems of choice were large unilamellar vesicles for bulk studies (enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering) and giant unilamellar vesicles for fluorescence microscopy examination using a variety of fluorescent probes. The influence of membrane lateral structure on the kinetics of enzyme activity and the consequences of enzyme activity on the structure of target membranes containing sphingomyelin were examined. The findings indicate that: 1) ceramide-1-phosphate (particularly lauroyl ceramide-1-phosphate) can be incorporated into sphingomyelin bilayers in a concentration-dependent manner and generates coexistence of liquid disordered/solid ordered domains, 2) the activity of sphingomyelinase D is clearly influenced by the supramolecular organization of its substrate in membranes and, 3) in situ ceramide-1-phosphate generation by enzymatic activity profoundly alters the lateral structure and morphology of the target membranes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sphingomyelinase-d-activity-model-membranes-structural-effects-situ-generation-ceramide1phosphate-1", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Finland"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/648456"], "description"=>"<p>The LAURDAN GP of suspensions of mixed C<sub>12</sub>SM and C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P at different ratios was measured. Pure C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P could not be extruded so the LAURDAN GP measurement was taken directly on the lipid suspension.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gp", "mixtures"], "article_id"=>318939, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LAURDAN_GP_of_C_12_SM_8758_C_12_Cer_1_P_mixtures_at_22_176_C_/318939", "title"=>"LAURDAN GP of C<sub>12</sub>SM∶C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P mixtures at 22°C.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:03:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/648817"], "description"=>"<p>The main panel shows a representative trace of the kinetics of SMD activity on LUV preparations of C<sub>12</sub>SM (red), egg SM (green) and POPC (black) at 22°C. Inset: Specific activity of SMD on C<sub>12</sub>SM and egg SM LUVs. The difference in specific activity is statistically significant (P<0.0001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["smd", "unilamellar"], "article_id"=>319303, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinetics_of_SMD_activity_on_large_unilamellar_vesicles_/319303", "title"=>"Kinetics of SMD activity on large unilamellar vesicles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:05:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649622"], "description"=>"<p>LAURDAN-labeled C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs were treated with different concentrations of SMD: 100 ng/ml (green triangles), 1 µg/ml (blue squares) and 2.5 µg/ml (red circles). The black open circles are the same vesicles before addition of enzyme and the black crosses are non-substrate POPC LUVs with 2.5 µg/ml SMD. The arrow indicates the time of SMD addition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kinetics", "laurdan", "gp", "luvs", "treated"], "article_id"=>320106, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_kinetics_of_LAURDAN_GP_of_C_12_SM_LUVs_treated_with_SMD_/320106", "title"=>"Representative kinetics of LAURDAN GP of C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs treated with SMD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:09:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649456"], "description"=>"<p>A) Sedimented control 100 nm liposomes after 24 hours (without SMD) at the bottom of the slide. Average GP value is −0.029±0.129. B) Sedimented material of LUVs treated with 1 µg/ml SMD after 24 hours at the bottom of the slide. Average GP value is 0.228±0.088. C) Same as B) but 5 µm above the slide surface. Average GP of 0.269±0.176 with areas of GP of 0.452±0.124. D) Sedimented material from the 50 mol% pre-mixed lipids without enzyme. Average GP of −0.044±0.079. Fields are 19 µm×19 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gp", "sedimented", "luvs", "treated"], "article_id"=>319943, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LAURDAN_GP_image_of_sedimented_material_from_C_12_SM_LUVs_treated_with_SMD_/319943", "title"=>"LAURDAN GP image of sedimented material from C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs treated with SMD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:08:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649749"], "description"=>"<p>A) DiIC<sub>18</sub>-labeled GUVs. Top left shows a typical vesicle before SMD addition and bottom left a GUV after 17 hours of incubation with inactive Lb3. The center panel shows domain formation in several GUVs 1–3 hours after SMD addition. On the right a collapsed vesicle with extruded tubes. B) Changes in LAURDAN GP induced by SMD. The left panel shows an untreated GUV, homogeneously fluid. The center panel shows domains of different GP value (indicated by arrows). The right panel shows a GUV with tubular extrusions (left) and a collapsed one (right). Bars are 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fluorescence", "microscopy", "images", "smd", "unilamellar"], "article_id"=>320237, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_fluorescence_microscopy_images_of_the_action_of_SMD_on_C_12_SM_giant_unilamellar_vesicles_/320237", "title"=>"Representative fluorescence microscopy images of the action of SMD on C<sub>12</sub>SM giant unilamellar vesicles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/648357"], "description"=>"<p>Thermogram of A) C<sub>12</sub>SM (green) and C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P (red). B) Thermogram of egg SM (green) and and C<sub>16</sub>Cer-1-P (red).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scanning", "calorimetry", "sphingomyelins"], "article_id"=>318831, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differential_scanning_calorimetry_of_pure_sphingomyelins_and_ceramide_1_phosphates_/318831", "title"=>"Differential scanning calorimetry of pure sphingomyelins and ceramide-1-phosphates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:02:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/648694"], "description"=>"<p>Representative images of domains in individual vesicles composed of 23 mol% C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P visualized with (A) DiIC<sub>18</sub> which is excluded from the C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P-enriched domains, B) LAURDAN intensity image at the pole of a giant vesicle where photoselection prevents probe excitation in the more ordered domains and, C) LAURDAN GP analysis of domains in an equatorial section showing areas of low dipolar relaxation (high GP, top histogram) and higher dipolar relaxation (lower GP, bottom histogram). Histograms were determined opposite to each other to avoid any bias caused by photoselection. Bars are 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["domains"], "article_id"=>319186, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pre_mixed_C_12_SM_8758_C_12_Cer_1_P_domains_in_GUVs_/319186", "title"=>"Pre-mixed C<sub>12</sub>SM∶C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P domains in GUVs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:04:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649886"], "description"=>"<p>The main panel shows the normalized fluorescence emission spectrum of SMD (excitation at 280 nm). The black trace is SMD alone, mixed with POPC vesicles (green) and with C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs (red). Inset: fluorescence polarization values for the same samples. The differences in polarization are statistically significant (P<0.003).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fluorescence", "spectra"], "article_id"=>320373, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protein_fluorescence_spectra_of_SMD_/320373", "title"=>"Protein fluorescence spectra of SMD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:10:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649059"], "description"=>"<p>Separately labeled vesicles were mixed at a 1∶1 ratio and treated with SMD (1 µg/ml). Emission at the DiIC<sub>18</sub> maximum (with excitation at 374 nm) was followed in time relative to a reference of an identical liposome mixture without enzyme. The ordinate is the normalized ratio of fluorescent emission of the treated over the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["resonance", "laurdan-", "luvs"], "article_id"=>319543, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_F_rster_resonance_energy_transfer_FRET_of_LAURDAN_and_DiIC_18_labeled_LUVs_under_the_action_of_SMD_/319543", "title"=>"Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) of LAURDAN- and DiIC<sub>18</sub>-labeled LUVs under the action of SMD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:06:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/650115"], "description"=>"<p>A) Effect of cholesterol on the specific activity of SMD. With the exception of pure C<sub>12</sub>SM and the 9 mol% mixture, all other differences are statistically significant (P<0.003). B) Mean diameter in nm versus time obtained by DLS of C<sub>12</sub>SM∶Cholesterol LUVs: The black circles represent pure C<sub>12</sub>SM vesicles with SMD, in green C<sub>12</sub>SM∶cholesterol vesicles (23 mol%) with (closed squares) and without (open squares) SMD and in red C<sub>12</sub>SM∶cholesterol vesicles (50 mol%) with SMD (closed triangles) and without (open triangles). Enzyme concentration was 1 µg/ml.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enzyme", "vesicle"], "article_id"=>320601, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_cholesterol_on_relative_enzyme_specific_activity_and_on_vesicle_size_/320601", "title"=>"Effect of cholesterol on relative enzyme specific activity and on vesicle size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:12:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/650249"], "description"=>"<p>A) Domains in a DiIC<sub>18</sub>-labeled GUV exposed to inactive Lb3 for 16 hours. B) Representative DiIC<sub>18</sub>-labeled GUVs before and after treatment with SMD. C) Two LAURDAN-labeled GUVs before (left) and after (right) exposure to SMD. Before treatment two domains are apparent (average GP values of 0.1 and 0.5 indicated by the green and red arrows, respectively), after SMD action the membrane becomes uniform (average GP value of 0.3). Bars are 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fluorescence", "images", "smd", "guvs", "composed"], "article_id"=>320730, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_fluorescence_images_of_the_effect_of_SMD_on_GUVs_composed_of_DOPC_8758_eggSM_8758_cholesterol_2_8758_1_8758_1_mol_/320730", "title"=>"Representative fluorescence images of the effect of SMD on GUVs composed of DOPC∶eggSM∶cholesterol 2∶1∶1 mol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:12:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/648957"], "description"=>"<p>Representative evolution of the size (as mean diameter in nm) of C<sub>12</sub>SM vesicles treated with 50 ng/ml (red) and 1 µg/ml (green) SMD. The open black circles show the scattering behavior of untreated vesicles, which was similar to control POPC vesicles treated with SMD and C<sub>12</sub>SM vesicles treated with inactive Lb3 (not shown).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scattering", "luvs"], "article_id"=>319451, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamic_Light_Scattering_of_C_12_SM_LUVs_under_the_action_of_SMD_/319451", "title"=>"Dynamic Light Scattering of C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs under the action of SMD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:05:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649253"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative normalized autocorrelation plots for the untreated vesicles (green circles), the same preparation treated with 1 µg/ml SMD (red circles) and a control with Triton X-100 (open black circles). B) Diffusion coefficient (D<sub>2</sub>) in time calculated from fitting the autocorrelation plot for the enzyme-treated sample. The bottom panels represent fluorescence images taken at 24 hours of C) sedimented material after enzyme treatment (1 µg/ml SMD) and D) untreated C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs. The images are 30 µm×30 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spectroscopy", "luvs"], "article_id"=>319740, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fluorescence_correlation_spectroscopy_of_C_12_SM_LUVs_under_the_action_of_SMD_/319740", "title"=>"Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs under the action of SMD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:07:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/649989"], "description"=>"<p>A) Specific activity of SMD on C<sub>12</sub>SM LUVs with increasing molar fractions of C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P. With the exception of pure C<sub>12</sub>SM and the 50 mol% mixture, all other differences are statistically significant (P<0.003). B) Mean diameter in nm versus time obtained by DLS of C<sub>12</sub>SM∶C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P LUVs: The black open circles represent pure C<sub>12</sub>SM untreated vesicles, the green triangles represent untreated C<sub>12</sub>SM∶C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P vesicles (23 mol%), the closed red squares are C<sub>12</sub>SM∶C<sub>12</sub>Cer-1-P vesicles (50 mol%) treated with 1 µg/ml SMD and the open red squares are the same but without enzyme.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enzyme", "vesicle"], "article_id"=>320478, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Roberto P. Stock", "Jonathan Brewer", "Kerstin Wagner", "Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo", "Lars Duelund", "Kit Drescher Jernshøj", "Lars Folke Olsen", "Luis A. Bagatolli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036003.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_product_on_relative_enzyme_specific_activity_and_on_vesicle_size_/320478", "title"=>"Effect of product on relative enzyme specific activity and on vesicle size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 06:11:32"}

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Relative Metric

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