On the Mysterious Propulsion of Synechococcus
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{"title"=>"On the mysterious propulsion of synechococcus", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kurt", "last_name"=>"Ehlers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005208949"}, {"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Oster", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102726598"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84860445154", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0036081", "sgr"=>"84860445154", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22567124", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364721465"}, "id"=>"e125629f-c358-39e4-9059-3aaaa76d3fe0", "abstract"=>"We propose a model for the self-propulsion of the marine bacterium Synechococcus utilizing a continuous looped helical track analogous to that found in Myxobacteria [1]. In our model cargo-carrying protein motors, driven by proton-motive force, move along a continuous looped helical track. The movement of the cargo creates surface distortions in the form of small amplitude traveling ridges along the S-layer above the helical track. The resulting fluid motion adjacent to the helical ribbon provides the propulsive thrust. A variation on the helical rotor model of [1] allows the motors to be anchored to the peptidoglycan layer, where they drive rotation of the track creating traveling helical waves along the S-layer. We derive expressions relating the swimming speed to the amplitude, wavelength, and velocity of the surface waves induced by the helical rotor, and show that they fall in reasonable ranges to explain the velocity and rotation rate of swimming Synechococcus.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mysterious-propulsion-synechococcus", "reader_count"=>36, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643767"], "description"=>"<p>Computed values of the velocity components for the case .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["velocity", "components"], "article_id"=>314266, "categories"=>["Physics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biophysics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Kurt Ehlers", "George Oster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Computed_values_of_the_velocity_components_for_the_case_/314266", "title"=>"Computed values of the velocity components for the case .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-02 01:11:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643524"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Deformations created by motor cargo traveling along the helical rotor are expressed as traveling ridges due to sterical coupling of adjacent subunits in the S-layer. (B) Cross section of Model 2: Motor cargo (blue balls) move along the helical rotor (black circle) and are not anchored to the peptidoglycan layer as in Model 1. Motor cargo moving with the grain of the S-layer creates a large deformation while motor cargo moving with the grain creates a small deformation and possibly a compression/expansion wave. Due to the higher drag of cargo moving with the grain the helical rotor is driven in the opposite direction. (C) Motor cargo moving against the grain (to the right in the figure) causes a transversal deformation along the cell surface driving fluid in the direction of the wave. (D) Because of the tilt of the S-layer proteins, an element of motor cargo moving with the grain (to the left in the figure) causes a local expansion of the membrane, making a wave traveling in the direction opposite of the transversal waves shown in C. Although traveling in opposite directions, both waves create fluid flow in the same direction: left to right. (E) Coupling between subunits in rows of the S-layer cause bumps formed by elements of cargo to create ridges in the S-layer. The elements of cargo follow a diagonal line from the bottom left corner to the top right corner while the wave fronts move from left to right. (F) The order Taylor approximation to the ratio of the steady fluid velocity to the speed of a transversal wave along an infinite sheet. (G) Here a 16 nm vertical displacement created of a 30 nm subunit at an angle of caused by motor cargo moving against the grain creates a transversal wave with height of  = 20 nm when it rocks on end. If instead the subunit rotates in reaction to motor cargo moving with the grain, the maximum longitudinal displacement would be nm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["traveling"], "article_id"=>314033, "categories"=>["Physics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biophysics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Kurt Ehlers", "George Oster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_2_Traveling_motor_model_/314033", "title"=>"Model 2: Traveling motor model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-02 01:07:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643274"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Myxococcus xanthus gliding according to Nan, <i>et al. </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081#pone.0036081-Nan1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>. Cargo carrying motors run along the helical rotor track carrying protein “cargo”. The high drag cargo (blue) forms traffic jams on the ventral side creating surface deformations on the surface of the cell. These ridges travel down the cell as the helical structure rotates propelling the cell. The large cargo is deposited at the trailing pole and exchanged for small cargo (red) that creates little drag. (B) <i>Synechococcus</i> swimming. Elements of motor cargo (blue and red dots) move along a continuous looped helical track creating distortions along the S-layer. Cargo is represented by blue dots moving from front (right) to back while small cargo elements move from the back (left) to front. (C) A freeze frame of the red/cyan anaglyph movie <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081#pone.0036081.s002\" target=\"_blank\">video S1</a>. The rotor consists of a right-handed helix and a left-handed helix joined at the ends. If the rotor rotates in the counter-clockwise direction, as viewed from above, the right-handed helix causes surface deformations traveling from the top to the bottom of the cell; the left-handed helix causes deformations that travel from the bottom to the top.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["helical"], "article_id"=>313775, "categories"=>["Physics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biophysics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Kurt Ehlers", "George Oster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cytoskeletal_helical_rotors_/313775", "title"=>"Cytoskeletal helical rotors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-02 01:02:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643401"], "description"=>"<p>TEM images courtesy of John Heuser. (A) A cross section of the cell wall of <i>Synechococcus</i> strain WH8102 showing the elongated subunits of the S-layer inclined at 60 degrees. (B) A stereo TEM showing the paracrystalline lattice structure of the SwmA protein S-layer. (C) Amplification of the wave height along the S-layer. The helical rotor, or an element of motor cargo, moving against the grain tilts and displaces the subunits of the S-layer amplifying the surface deformation. The motors (not shown) driving the motion of the helical rotor are attached to the peptidoglycan layer. (D) The motors drive the helical structure to rotate beneath the cell surface in the counter-clockwise direction (as viewed from above). This creates a traveling helical wave passing from the top to bottom, and the cell surface counter-rotates in the clockwise direction. (E) Cross section of Model 1: Elements of motor cargo (blue dots) anchored to the peptidoglycan drive rotation of the helical rotor relative to the rest of the cell, including the cell surface S-Layer. The resulting helical wave causes the cell to rotate at 1 Hz relative to the surrounding fluid.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fixed-motor"], "article_id"=>313899, "categories"=>["Physics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biophysics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Kurt Ehlers", "George Oster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_1_Fixed_Motor_model_for_Synechococcus_/313899", "title"=>"Model 1: Fixed-Motor model for <i>Synechococcus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-02 01:04:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643742"], "description"=>"<p>Computed values of and , .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "plant biology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "biophysics", "physics"], "article_id"=>314233, "categories"=>["Physics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biophysics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Kurt Ehlers", "George Oster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Computed_values_of_and_/314233", "title"=>"Computed values of and , .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-02 01:10:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/331931", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/331984"], "description"=>"<div><p>We propose a model for the self-propulsion of the marine bacterium <em>Synechococcus</em> utilizing a continuous looped helical track analogous to that found in Myxobacteria <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081#pone.0036081-Nan1\">[1]</a>. In our model cargo-carrying protein motors, driven by proton-motive force, move along a continuous looped helical track. The movement of the cargo creates surface distortions in the form of small amplitude traveling ridges along the S-layer above the helical track. The resulting fluid motion adjacent to the helical ribbon provides the propulsive thrust. A variation on the helical rotor model of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081#pone.0036081-Nan1\">[1]</a> allows the motors to be anchored to the peptidoglycan layer, where they drive rotation of the track creating traveling helical waves along the S-layer. We derive expressions relating the swimming speed to the amplitude, wavelength, and velocity of the surface waves induced by the helical rotor, and show that they fall in reasonable ranges to explain the velocity and rotation rate of swimming <em>Synechococcus</em>.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["propulsion"], "article_id"=>125546, "categories"=>["Physics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biophysics", "Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Kurt Ehlers", "George Oster"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/On_the_Mysterious_Propulsion_of_Synechococcus_/125546", "title"=>"On the Mysterious Propulsion of <em>Synechococcus</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-02 01:32:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643632"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Because the proteins of the S-layer are appropriately coupled, motor cargo creates a train of ridges along a ribbon above the helical track of sufficient amplitude to move the fluid media and generate thrust. (B) Geometry of the traveling cargo model: elements of motor cargo spaced at intervals of along the helical track (blue line) create transversal ridges represented by the green lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["traveling"], "article_id"=>314130, "categories"=>["Physics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biophysics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Kurt Ehlers", "George Oster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036081.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geometry_of_the_traveling_cargo_model_/314130", "title"=>"Geometry of the traveling cargo model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-02 01:08:50"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biomechanics", "average_usage"=>[307, 515, 633, 733, 821, 912, 1008, 1100, 1202, 1281, 1363, 1425, 1481, 1569, 1644, 1721, 1788, 1842, 1913, 1975, 2020, 2087, 2135, 2175, 2228]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[308, 500, 607, 700, 782, 876, 957, 1039, 1128, 1214, 1290, 1365, 1431, 1496, 1560, 1634, 1695, 1772, 1839, 1908, 1972, 2043, 2106, 2179, 2246]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[298, 476, 578, 665, 743, 821, 891, 962, 1036, 1108, 1174, 1240, 1312, 1371, 1430, 1494, 1551, 1609, 1673, 1736, 1795, 1857, 1913, 1976, 2035]}]}
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Net::HTTPTooManyRequests

Source
Scopus
Time
2019-08-27 21:07:56 UTC
Target URL
https://api.elsevier.com/content/search/index:SCOPUS?query=DOI(10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0036081)
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'