Chronic Kidney Disease Itself Is a Causal Risk Factor for Stroke beyond Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Chronic Kidney Disease Itself Is a Causal Risk Factor for Stroke beyond Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yi-Chun", "last_name"=>"Chen"}, {"first_name"=>"Yu-Chieh", "last_name"=>"Su"}, {"first_name"=>"Ching-Chih", "last_name"=>"Lee"}, {"first_name"=>"Yung-Sung", "last_name"=>"Huang"}, {"first_name"=>"Shang-Jyh", "last_name"=>"Hwang"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0036332", "pmid"=>"22558437"}, "id"=>"7d5bc3b5-9bf0-30c5-b9d9-d349b1cd4116", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In Taiwan, CVD is dominated by strokes but there is no robust evidence for a causal relationship between CKD and stroke. This study aimed to explore such causal association.\\n\\nMETHODS: We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2007. Each patient identified was individually tracked for a full three years from the index admission to identify those in whom any type of stroke developed. The study cohort consisted of patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of CKD and no traditional cardiovascular risk factors at baseline (n = 1393) and an age-matched control cohort of patients hospitalized for appendectomies (n = 1393, a surrogate for the general population). Cox proportional hazard regression and propensity score model were used to compare the three-year stroke-free survival rate of the two cohorts after adjustment for possible confounding factors.\\n\\nRESULTS: There were 256 stroke patients, 156 (11.2%) in the study cohort and 100 (7.2%) in the control cohort. After adjusting for covariates, patients with primary CKD had a 1.94-fold greater risk for stroke (95% CI, 1.45-2.60; p<0.001) based on Cox regression and a 1.68-fold greater risk for stroke (95% CI, 1.25-2.25; p = 0.001) based on propensity score. This was still the case for two cohorts younger than 75 years old and without traditional cardiovascular risk factors.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: This study of Taiwanese patients indicates that CKD itself is a causal risk factor for stroke beyond the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Primary CKD patients have higher risk for stroke than the general population and all CKD patients, irrespective of the presence or severity of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, should be made aware of the stroke risk and monitored for stroke prevention.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/chronic-kidney-disease-itself-causal-risk-factor-stroke-beyond-traditional-cardiovascular-risk-facto-2", "reader_count"=>9, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/645393"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; HR = hazard ratio.</p>*<p>Adjustments are made for patient's age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, geographic region, urbanization level, and enrollee category.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjusted", "ratios", "kidney", "groups", "younger", "75", "years", "comorbidities", "three-year", "follow-up"], "article_id"=>315870, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yi-Chun Chen", "Yu-Chieh Su", "Ching-Chih Lee", "Yung-Sung Huang", "Shang-Jyh Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036332.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crude_and_adjusted_hazard_ratios_for_stroke_among_the_primary_chronic_kidney_disease_CKD_and_control_groups_younger_than_75_years_old_and_without_comorbidities_during_the_three_year_follow_up_period_n_8202_8202_1617_/315870", "title"=>"Crude and adjusted hazard ratios for stroke among the primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) and control groups younger than 75 years old and without comorbidities during the three-year follow-up period (n = 1617).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:47:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/645473"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; HR = hazard ratio.</p>*<p>Adjustments are made for patient's age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, geographic region, urbanization level, and enrollee category.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjusted", "ratios", "kidney", "groups", "three-year", "follow-up"], "article_id"=>315959, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yi-Chun Chen", "Yu-Chieh Su", "Ching-Chih Lee", "Yung-Sung Huang", "Shang-Jyh Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036332.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crude_and_adjusted_hazard_ratios_for_stroke_among_the_primary_chronic_kidney_disease_CKD_and_control_groups_during_the_three_year_follow_up_period_n_8202_8202_2786_/315959", "title"=>"Crude and adjusted hazard ratios for stroke among the primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) and control groups during the three-year follow-up period (n = 2786).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:48:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Cardiology", "average_usage"=>[262, 473, 578, 664, 746, 826, 913, 992, 1078, 1143, 1201, 1272, 1338, 1385, 1442, 1507, 1565, 1618, 1680, 1741, 1816, 1871, 1903, 1952, 2009]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nephrology", "average_usage"=>[267, 529, 660, 758, 840, 904, 1010, 1091, 1175, 1257, 1349, 1442, 1494, 1544, 1607, 1674, 1749, 1821, 1863, 1908, 1949, 2001, 2054, 2080, 2144]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Surgical and invasive medical procedures", "average_usage"=>[286, 511, 637, 736, 826, 907, 995, 1071, 1150, 1221, 1293, 1366, 1437, 1507, 1560, 1637, 1698, 1755, 1815, 1860, 1939, 2007, 2062, 2121, 2162]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Vascular medicine", "average_usage"=>[275, 494, 608, 705, 791, 880, 964, 1056, 1143, 1227, 1296, 1370, 1434, 1506, 1564, 1635, 1705, 1771, 1833, 1871, 1940, 1991, 2026, 2090, 2147]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[330, 562, 680, 783, 875, 964, 1062, 1152, 1240, 1327, 1406, 1483, 1561, 1632, 1701, 1770, 1849, 1922, 1993, 2059, 2131, 2197, 2271, 2335, 2403]}]}
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