Cell Expansion-Mediated Organ Growth Is Affected by Mutations in Three EXIGUA Genes
Publication Date
May 04, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Silvia Rubio Díaz, José Manuel Pérez Pérez, Rebeca González Bayón, Rafael Muñoz Viana, et al
Volume
7
Issue
5
Pages
e36500
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0036500
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22586475
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3344895
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22586475
Web of Science
000305349800069
Scopus
84860498834
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/cell-expansionmediated-organ-growth-affected-mutations-three-exigua-genes
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Cell expansion-mediated organ growth is affected by mutations in three EXIGUA genes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Silvia", "last_name"=>"Rubio-Díaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"35784992700"}, {"first_name"=>"José Manuel", "last_name"=>"Pérez-Pérez", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003984823"}, {"first_name"=>"Rebeca", "last_name"=>"González-Bayón", "scopus_author_id"=>"14630204200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rafael", "last_name"=>"Muñoz-Viana", "scopus_author_id"=>"55204772600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nero", "last_name"=>"Borrega", "scopus_author_id"=>"55205144700"}, {"first_name"=>"Gregory", "last_name"=>"Mouille", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602720801"}, {"first_name"=>"Diana", "last_name"=>"Hernández-Romero", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507646591"}, {"first_name"=>"Pedro", "last_name"=>"Robles", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003671539"}, {"first_name"=>"Herman", "last_name"=>"Höfte", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003930662"}, {"first_name"=>"María Rosa", "last_name"=>"Ponce", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006601088"}, {"first_name"=>"José Luis", "last_name"=>"Micol", "scopus_author_id"=>"55395424600"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871262874", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0036500", "pui"=>"364730705", "sgr"=>"84871262874", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22586475"}, "id"=>"f1a69575-7d1f-3386-b54e-ebdf375a9f16", "abstract"=>"Organ growth depends on two distinct, yet integrated, processes: cell proliferation and post-mitotic cell expansion. Although the regulatory networks of plant cell proliferation during organ growth have begun to be unveiled, the mechanisms regulating post-mitotic cell growth remain mostly unknown. Here, we report the characterization of three EXIGUA (EXI) genes that encode different subunits of the cellulose synthase complex specifically required for secondary cell wall formation. Despite this highly specific role of EXI genes, all the cells within the leaf, even those that do not have secondary walls, display small sizes in the exi mutants. In addition, we found a positive correlation between cell size and the DNA ploidy levels in exi mutant leaves, suggesting that both processes share some regulatory components. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the collapsed xylem vessels of the exi mutants hamper water transport throughout the plant, which, in turn, limits the turgor pressure levels required for normal post-mitotic cell expansion during leaf growth.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cell-expansionmediated-organ-growth-affected-mutations-three-exigua-genes", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643703"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) Representative diagrams from the leaf adaxial epidermis of <i>exi</i> mutants. Diagrams were drawn from the differential interference contrast images of cleared third-node leaves collected from (A) L<i>er</i>, (B) <i>exi1-2</i>, (C) <i>exi2</i> and (D) <i>exi5</i> plants. (E) Adaxial pavement cell area, cell density and cell number in first-node (white bars) or third-node (grey bars) leaves of the <i>exi</i> mutants. Data were normalized with respect to the L<i>er</i> value and are expressed as percentages. Represented values are the mean and the standard deviation, except for the pavement cell area, which did not exhibit a normal distribution and for which the median was used. Asterisks indicate significant differences from the L<i>er</i> control (<i>P</i> value<0.05; n = 11–15). All the data were obtained at 21 DAS from plants grown on half-strength MS agar medium. Scale bars indicate 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adaxial", "epidermis"], "article_id"=>314187, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Leaf_adaxial_epidermis_in_the_exi_mutants_/314187", "title"=>"Leaf adaxial epidermis in the <i>exi</i> mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:09:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/644461"], "description"=>"<p>(A–B) Rosette morphology in seedlings grown on media (A) without mannitol or (B) supplemented with 100 mM mannitol (B). (C, D) Effects of different concentrations of mannitol or NaCl on the (C) fresh weight (D) dry weight of 26-day-old rosettes. Plants were grown for 19 days on half-strength MS agar medium and then transferred to half-strength MS agar plates supplemented or not with either mannitol or NaCl at different concentrations. Photographs were taken after one week of treatment, and rosettes were immediately weighed (fresh weight) or dried for 16 h at 60°C and then weighted (dry weight). Asterisks indicate significant differences from the control plates without mannitol or NaCl (<i>P</i> value<0.01). Each column represents the mean of three measurements (8–10 rosettes each). Scale bars indicate 2 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "plant biology", "developmental biology"], "article_id"=>314942, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Osmotic_stress_tolerance_of_the_exi_mutants_/314942", "title"=>"Osmotic stress tolerance of the <i>exi</i> mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:22:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/644697"], "description"=>"<p>Values are mean±standard deviation. The median is shown in parentheses. Significant differences (<i>P</i> value<0.01, n = 10) from the L<i>er</i> control are in bold. Values higher than those of L<i>er</i> control are in italics. Data analysis was performed as indicated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. All plants were homozygous for the mutations indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dna", "ploidy", "leaves"], "article_id"=>315178, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nuclear_DNA_ploidy_distribution_in_the_first_pair_of_leaves_of_the_exi_mutants_/315178", "title"=>"Nuclear DNA ploidy distribution in the first pair of leaves of the <i>exi</i> mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:26:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643857"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) Transverse sections of a region midway between the midvein and the leaf margin from (A) L<i>er</i>, (B) <i>exi1-2</i>, (C) <i>exi2</i> and (D) <i>exi5</i> third-node vegetative leaves. (E–H) Confocal micrographs of palisade mesophyll sections of first-node leaves from (E) L<i>er</i>, (F) <i>exi1-2</i>, (G) <i>exi2</i> and (H) <i>exi5</i> mutants. (I) Palisade mesophyll cell size in the subepidermal layer of first-node (white bars) or third-node (grey bars) leaves of L<i>er</i> and <i>exi</i> mutants. Data were normalized with respect to the L<i>er</i> value and expressed as percentages (mean and standard deviation). Asterisks indicate significant differences from the L<i>er</i> control (<i>P</i> value<0.05; n = 13–16 individuals). All the data were obtained at 21 DAS from plants grown on half-strength MS agar medium. Scale bars indicate (A–D) 100 µm and (E–H) 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "plant biology", "developmental biology"], "article_id"=>314343, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Internal_leaf_structure_in_the_exi_mutants_/314343", "title"=>"Internal leaf structure in the <i>exi</i> mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:12:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/644590"], "description"=>"<p>(A–H) Leaf mesophyll of the <i>exi</i> mutants. Diagrams were drawn from differential interference contrast micrographs of cleared first-node leaves collected from (A, E) L<i>er</i>, (B, F) <i>exi1-2</i>, (C, G) <i>exi2</i> and (D, H) <i>exi5</i> plants. (I, J) First-node leaf (I) lamina area and (J) mesophyll cell area in the <i>exi</i> mutants. Data were normalized with respect to the L<i>er</i> values and are expressed as percentages (mean and standard deviation). Asterisks indicate significant differences from the control seedlings grown on half-strength MS agar medium (<i>P</i> value<0.01). All the data were obtained 21 DAS from seedlings grown on half-strength MS agar plates (A–D, white bars) or in half-strength MS liquid cultures (E–H, grey bars). Scale bars indicate 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["defects", "mutants", "rescued"], "article_id"=>315074, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_cell_expansion_defects_of_the_exi_mutants_are_rescued_by_liquid_culture_/315074", "title"=>"The cell expansion defects of the <i>exi</i> mutants are rescued by liquid culture.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:24:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643997"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Map-based cloning strategy used to identify the <i>EXI</i> genes. Mapping populations of 217 F<sub>2</sub> plants were derived from an <i>exi1-1</i>×Col-0 cross, 417 from an <i>exi2</i>×Col-0 cross, and 278 from an <i>exi5</i>×Col-0 cross. The candidate intervals for <i>EXI1</i>, <i>EXI2</i> and <i>EXI5</i> were of 231, 233 and 390 kb, respectively, which encompassed 70, 55 and 110 annotated genes. The molecular markers used for linkage analysis, their map positions and the number of informative recombinants identified (in parentheses) are indicated. (B) Structure of the <i>EXI1</i>, <i>EXI2</i> and <i>EXI5</i> genes, with indication of the nucleotide position (relative to the translation start site) and nature of the mutations found; a triangle indicates a T-DNA insertion. Exons are represented as boxes, and introns by lines connecting boxes. The translation start (ATG) and stop (TAA or TGA) codons are also indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cloning"], "article_id"=>314480, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Positional_cloning_of_the_EXI1_EXI2_and_EXI5_genes_/314480", "title"=>"Positional cloning of the <i>EXI1</i>, <i>EXI2</i> and <i>EXI5</i> genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:14:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/644153"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) Scanning electron micrographs of transverse sections of stems from (A, A′) L<i>er</i>, (B, B′) <i>exi1-2</i>, (C, C′) <i>exi2</i> and (D, D′) <i>exi5</i> plants. Magnification is (A–C) 70x and (A’–C’) 500x. (E–F) Comparison of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra obtained from stem sections of L<i>er</i> and <i>exi</i> plants. Spectra were acquired on xylem in apical (E) and basal (F) parts of the stem. The value between the two red lines (threshold) corresponds to non-significant differences (<i>P</i> value<0.01) between the two genotypes tested. Significant positive <i>t</i>-values indicated a higher absorbance value in L<i>er</i> than in the <i>exi</i> mutants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "plant biology", "developmental biology"], "article_id"=>314635, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Xylem_structure_and_composition_in_exi_stems_/314635", "title"=>"Xylem structure and composition in <i>exi</i> stems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:17:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/644276"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Box plots showing maximal xylem vessel radius data for the <i>exi</i> mutants. Each box plot was produced from 15 measurements. All differences between each mutant and the wild type were statistically significant (<i>P</i> value<0.05). Outliers are shown as circles. (B) Rapid dehydration of detached rosettes from 4 week-old plants. Water loss was determined as percentage of initial fresh weight. (C) Rosette phenotypes caused by the <i>exi</i>, <i>aba1-1</i> and <i>aba2-13</i> mutations and their double mutant combinations. Pictures were taken 21 DAS. The scale bar indicates 1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["xylem"], "article_id"=>314762, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Water_loss_and_xylem_vessel_size_in_the_exi_mutants_/314762", "title"=>"Water loss and xylem vessel size in the <i>exi</i> mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:19:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/331524", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/331564", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/331590", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/331650"], "description"=>"<div><p>Organ growth depends on two distinct, yet integrated, processes: cell proliferation and post-mitotic cell expansion. Although the regulatory networks of plant cell proliferation during organ growth have begun to be unveiled, the mechanisms regulating post-mitotic cell growth remain mostly unknown. Here, we report the characterization of three <em>EXIGUA</em> (<em>EXI</em>) genes that encode different subunits of the cellulose synthase complex specifically required for secondary cell wall formation. Despite this highly specific role of <em>EXI</em> genes, all the cells within the leaf, even those that do not have secondary walls, display small sizes in the <em>exi</em> mutants. In addition, we found a positive correlation between cell size and the DNA ploidy levels in <em>exi</em> mutant leaves, suggesting that both processes share some regulatory components. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the collapsed xylem vessels of the <em>exi</em> mutants hamper water transport throughout the plant, which, in turn, limits the turgor pressure levels required for normal post-mitotic cell expansion during leaf growth.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expansion-mediated", "affected", "mutations", "genes"], "article_id"=>125459, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cell_Expansion_Mediated_Organ_Growth_Is_Affected_by_Mutations_in_Three_EXIGUA_Genes/125459", "title"=>"Cell Expansion-Mediated Organ Growth Is Affected by Mutations in Three <em>EXIGUA</em> Genes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:30:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/643549"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) Rosettes of the (A) Landsberg <i>erecta</i> (L<i>er</i>) wild type and the (B) <i>exi1-2</i>, (C) <i>exi2</i> and (D) <i>exi5</i> mutants. (E) Series of L<i>er</i>, <i>exi1-2</i>, <i>exi2</i> and <i>exi5</i> leaves. From left to right: two cotyledons and the first to tenth or eleventh leaves. Mutants display small, dark-green leaves of relatively normal shape. (F, G) (F) Rosette mean diameter and (G) lamina area from first-node (white bars) or third-node (grey bars) leaves. Asterisks indicate significant differences from the L<i>er</i> control (<i>P</i> value<0.05; n = 11–20 individuals). (H) Root morphology in L<i>er</i> (left) and <i>exi5</i> (right) seedlings grown in near-vertically oriented plates. (I) From left to right, the reproductive morphology of L<i>er</i>, <i>exi1-2</i> and <i>exi2</i> plants grown in pots. (J) Detail of L<i>er</i> (up) and <i>exi1-2</i> (down) inflorescences. (K) From left to right, siliques from L<i>er</i>, <i>exi1-2</i>, <i>exi2</i> and <i>exi5</i> plants. Samples were taken (A–H) 21 and (I–K) 38 DAS. All the plants shown were homozygous for the indicated mutations (in italics). Scale bars indicate (A–E, H, J and K) 5 mm and (I) 3 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "plant biology", "developmental biology"], "article_id"=>314032, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Silvia Rubio-Díaz", "José Manuel Pérez-Pérez", "Rebeca González-Bayón", "Rafael Muñoz-Viana", "Nero Borrega", "Gregory Mouille", "Diana Hernández-Romero", "Pedro Robles", "Herman Höfte", "María Rosa Ponce", "José Luis Micol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036500.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_the_exi_mutants_/314032", "title"=>"Morphology of the <i>exi</i> mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-04 01:07:12"}

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Relative Metric

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