Actin- and Dynamin-Dependent Maturation of Bulk Endocytosis Restores Neurotransmission following Synaptic Depletion
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{"title"=>"Actin- and dynamin-dependent maturation of bulk endocytosis restores neurotransmission following synaptic depletion", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tam H.", "last_name"=>"Nguyen", "scopus_author_id"=>"16313300600"}, {"first_name"=>"Guillaume", "last_name"=>"Maucort", "scopus_author_id"=>"29068019600"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert K.P.", "last_name"=>"Sullivan", "scopus_author_id"=>"8093628100"}, {"first_name"=>"Mitja", "last_name"=>"Schenning", "scopus_author_id"=>"23478878100"}, {"first_name"=>"Nickolas A.", "last_name"=>"Lavidis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004284343"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam", "last_name"=>"McCluskey", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004402361"}, {"first_name"=>"Phillip J.", "last_name"=>"Robinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403719730"}, {"first_name"=>"Frederic A.", "last_name"=>"Meunier", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101758786"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84861328690", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0036913", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364857975", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22629340", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861328690"}, "id"=>"5a1df4c5-07aa-3617-930c-1f35f321b468", "abstract"=>"Bulk endocytosis contributes to the maintenance of neurotransmission at the amphibian neuromuscular junction by regenerating synaptic vesicles. How nerve terminals internalize adequate portions of the presynaptic membrane when bulk endocytosis is initiated before the end of a sustained stimulation is unknown. A maturation process, occurring at the end of the stimulation, is hypothesised to precisely restore the pools of synaptic vesicles. Using confocal time-lapse microscopy of FM1-43-labeled nerve terminals at the amphibian neuromuscular junction, we confirm that bulk endocytosis is initiated during a sustained tetanic stimulation and reveal that shortly after the end of the stimulation, nerve terminals undergo a maturation process. This includes a transient bulging of the plasma membrane, followed by the development of large intraterminal FM1-43-positive donut-like structures comprising large bulk membrane cisternae surrounded by recycling vesicles. The degree of bulging increased with stimulation frequency and the plasmalemma surface retrieved following the transient bulging correlated with the surface membrane internalized in bulk cisternae and recycling vesicles. Dyngo-4a, a potent dynamin inhibitor, did not block the initiation, but prevented the maturation of bulk endocytosis. In contrast, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, hindered both the initiation and maturation processes. Both inhibitors hampered the functional recovery of neurotransmission after synaptic depletion. Our data confirm that initiation of bulk endocytosis occurs during stimulation and demonstrates that a delayed maturation process controlled by actin and dynamin underpins the coupling between exocytosis and bulk endocytosis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/actin-dynamindependent-maturation-bulk-endocytosis-restores-neurotransmission-following-synaptic-dep", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>8, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/635565"], "description"=>"<p>NMJ preparations were either incubated with dyngo-4a (30 µM) or cytochalasin D (4 µM) or left untreated for 40 min in normal Ringer's solution. Synaptic depression was induced by stimulation at 20 Hz for 10 min. (<b>A</b>) Time-course of mean amplitude of EPPs (expressed as percentage of the average of the first 10 EPPs) from 4 terminals during stimulation elicited at 20 Hz in control (black), dyngo-4a-treated (red) and cytochalasin D-treated (blue) preparations as indicated. The inset in (<b>A</b>) shows representative EPP traces at the indicated time points. (<b>B</b>) Comparison of the averaged EPP amplitudes at the indicated time and conditions. (<b>C</b>) Comparison of average time constants of the exponential fits performed on each synaptic depletion time-course in the indicated conditions. (n = 4). (<b>D–F</b>), EPPs were elicited by electrical stimulation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz following 20 Hz high-frequency depletion to monitor recovery of neurotransmission. (<b>D</b>) Time-course of mean EPP amplitudes from 3 terminals during stimulation elicited at 0.5 Hz in control, dyngo-4a-treated and cytochalasin D-treated preparations as indicated. The inset in (<b>D</b>) shows representative EPP traces at the indicated time points. (<b>E</b>) Comparison of the rate of recovery of neurotransmission from synaptic depletion for the indicated conditions. (n = 3). Data shown as mean ± S.E.M and statistical significance was determined using Student's <i>t</i> test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytochalasin", "inhibit", "synaptic", "neuromuscular"], "article_id"=>306043, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dyngo_4a_and_cytochalasin_D_inhibit_recovery_from_synaptic_depression_at_the_neuromuscular_junction_/306043", "title"=>"Dyngo-4a and cytochalasin D inhibit recovery from synaptic depression at the neuromuscular junction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:40:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634621"], "description"=>"<p>NMJ preparations were pre-labeled with FM1-43 by electrical stimulation (1 Hz for 5 min), and extensively washed in normal Ringer's solution. Labeled nerve terminals were then stimulated at 20 Hz for 10 min and visualized by time-lapse confocal imaging starting from the final 4 min of stimulation. The data shown are from a representative experiment, repeated independently 14 times. (<b>A</b>) Representative time-lapse confocal images of nerve terminals at various time points during and after stimulation (time = 0 sec indicates the end of the 20 Hz stimulation period). Note the various remodeling stages: the progressive increase in plasma membrane diameter (bulging, an example of a prominent section is indicated by arrowheads), the rapid increase in intraterminal fluorescence following the collapse in plasma membrane diameter, and the appearance of ‘bulk endosomes’. (<b>B</b> and <b>C</b>) Magnified regions of the same nerve terminal in (<b>A</b>) showing the initiation of bulk endosomes as FM1-43-positive balls interconnected by growing tubules either during (<b>B</b>) or after (<b>C</b>) the stimulation period (arrows and arrowheads indicate formation of FM-labeled tubules). Bottom panel in (<b>B</b>) shows over-contrasted versions of images in the top panel to improve signal-to-noise ratios. (<b>D</b>) Time-course of the increase in internal diameter of a representative bulk endosome during the maturation process. (<b>E</b>) Graph showing the percentage increase in plasma membrane diameter (black, n = 5) and percentage increase in intraterminal fluorescence (red, n = 8 region of interests) plotted over time. (<b>F</b>) Histogram of time taken for formation of recyclosomes in nerve terminals stimulated at 20 Hz. (<b>G</b>) Stimulation frequency dependency of nerve terminal bulging. Data shown as mean ± S.E.M and statistic significance was determined using Student's <i>t</i> test. Scale bar 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["collapsing", "presynaptic", "plasma", "membrane", "paves"], "article_id"=>305100, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bulging_and_collapsing_of_the_presynaptic_plasma_membrane_paves_the_way_for_bulk_endocytosis_/305100", "title"=>"Bulging and collapsing of the presynaptic plasma membrane paves the way for bulk endocytosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:25:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634745"], "description"=>"<p>Motor nerve terminals were electrically stimulated at 20 Hz for 10 min. FM1-43 (5 µM) was added 5 min before the end of the stimulation. The preparation was washed several times in normal Ringer's solution for 30 min, fixed using paraformaldehyde (4%), and rinsed in PBS. Confocal Z-stacks were acquired of nerve terminal branches containing donut-shape structures and two types of 3-dimensional representations are presented: (<b>A</b>) line scan and, (<b>B</b>) 3D surface rendering. (<b>C</b>) Confocal image of a donut-shaped structure and estimation of its diameter measured from the distance between the highest intensity taken from the fluorescence intensity profile as indicated. The average thickness was then calculated by establishing the size of the intensity profile taken equidistance between the center and the highest point of the intensity profile as indicated. Histograms showing the measured area (<b>D</b>) and diameter (<b>E</b>) of donut-shaped structures (n = 169 structures from 29 nerve terminals). Analysis of the recyclosome density (<b>F</b>) and recyclosome size (<b>G</b>) as a function of stimulation frequency. Data shown as mean ± S.E.M and statistic significance was determined using Student's <i>t</i> test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characterization", "donut-shape"], "article_id"=>305223, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphometric_characterization_of_donut_shape_structures_/305223", "title"=>"Morphometric characterization of donut-shape structures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:27:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/635105"], "description"=>"<p>NMJ preparations were pre-treated with cytochalasin D (4 µM) or dyngo-4a (30 µM) for 40 min followed by a 5 min pulse with FM1-43 (5 µM). The preparation was washed in the continuing presence of cytochalasin D or dyngo-4a prior to electrical stimulation at 20 Hz for 10 min and time-lapse imaging. The data shown are from representative experiments, repeated independently 3–14 times. (<b>A</b>) Untreated nerve terminals displayed a bulging of the plasma membrane followed by collapsing and formation of recyclosomes. Treatment of nerve terminals with cytochalasin D or dyngo-4a blocked the plasma membrane bulging and formation of recyclosomes. (<b>B</b>) Typical dynamics of changes in the plasma membrane surface area in untreated (black), cytochalasin D-treated (blue) or dyngo-4a-treated (red) nerve terminals. (<b>C</b>) Statistical analysis of the changes in the estimated surface area of presynaptic plasma membrane at the peak of bulging and after the collapsing phase. Untreated nerve terminals showed a clear bulging and collapsing in response to 20 Hz stimulation, whereas dyngo-4a-treated terminals showed a limited, but significant bulging in comparison. No detectable change was detected in cytochalasin D-treated nerve terminals. Data shown as mean ± S.E.M and statistical significance was determined using Student's <i>t</i> test. Scale bars 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["actin", "polymerization", "dynamin", "inhibits", "plasma", "membrane", "bulging", "terminals", "stimulated", "20"], "article_id"=>305576, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Disruption_of_actin_polymerization_and_dynamin_function_inhibits_plasma_membrane_bulging_in_nerve_terminals_stimulated_at_20_Hz_/305576", "title"=>"Disruption of actin polymerization and dynamin function inhibits plasma membrane bulging in nerve terminals stimulated at 20 Hz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:32:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/635289"], "description"=>"<p>NMJ preparations were treated with 30 µM dyngo-4a for 40 min in Ringer's solution (2 mM Ca<sup>2+)</sup> followed by stimulation at 20 Hz for 10 min. A pulse of FM1-43 was applied for the last 5 min of stimulation, followed by washing with cold Ca<sup>2+</sup>-free Ringer's solution. Fresh Ringer's solution containing 30 µM dyngo-4a was then reapplied to the preparation, followed by confocal imaging. (<b>A</b>) Representative image of control unstimulated nerve terminal showing membrane localization of FM1-43. (<b>B</b>) Stimulation of untreated nerve terminals at low frequency (1 Hz) revealed the appearance of classical FM1-43-positive bands representative of synaptic vesicle clusters. (<b>C</b>) Stimulation of nerve terminals at 20 Hz revealed the appearance of large FM1-43-positive donut-shaped intraterminal structures. (<b>D</b>) Unstimulated dyngo-4a-treated nerve terminals exhibited similar plasma membrane FM1-43 staining to untreated terminals. Dyngo-4a-treated nerve terminals stimulated at 20 Hz exhibited a striking network of FM1-43-positive tubules that appeared to be connected to the plasma membrane (<b>E–I</b>). Filament trace modeling (<b>F</b> and <b>G</b>) demonstrates the reticulated nature of the branched tubular networks induced by dyngo-4a at the amphibian NMJ. (<b>H</b> and <b>I</b>), Depth coding analysis of nerve terminals revealed that the tubular networks were mostly located intraterminally, with most tubules residing within the green-yellow region (0.5 µm away from the plasma membrane). In some instances, the termination points of individual branches were located within the red region, indicating membrane localization (white arrows) of these branch terminals. Scale bars 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inhibition", "blocks", "endosomes", "intraterminal"], "article_id"=>305767, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>103, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamin_inhibition_blocks_the_formation_of_bulk_endosomes_and_promotes_intraterminal_tubulation_/305767", "title"=>"Dynamin inhibition blocks the formation of bulk endosomes and promotes intraterminal tubulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:36:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/635439"], "description"=>"<p>NMJ preparations were stimulated at 20 Hz for 10 min in either the presence or absence of dyngo-4a, followed by fixation with paraformaldehyde and immunostaining for dynamin-1. (<b>A</b>) Stimulation of nerve terminals not treated with dyngo-4a demonstrated that dynamin is localized to bulk endosomes, as well as active zones as revealed by α-bungarotoxin labeling of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (insets). (<b>B</b>) Control unstimulated nerve terminals treated with dyngo-4a show dynamin-1 distribution throughout the nerve terminal. In contrast, immunostaining of stimulated nerve terminals treated with dyngo-4a (<b>C</b>) revealed dynamin-1 staining localized to hotspots lining the plasma membrane, similar to the FM1-43-labeled hotspots seen in the early stages of bulk endosome formation (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913#pone-0036913-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>). (<b>D–F</b>), Line intensity profile analysis on selected regions (double white lines) was performed to determine the fluorescence distribution. Scale bars 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inhibits", "dynamin-1", "recruitment", "plasma"], "article_id"=>305922, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>93, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dyngo_4a_inhibits_dynamin_1_function_but_not_its_recruitment_to_the_plasma_membrane_/305922", "title"=>"Dyngo-4a inhibits dynamin-1 function but not its recruitment to the plasma membrane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:38:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634876"], "description"=>"<p>Amphibian motor nerve terminals were stimulated at 20 Hz for 10 min and FM1-43 (5 µM) was added 5 min before the end of the stimulation. The preparation was then washed with Ca<sup>2+</sup>-free Ringer's solution, fixed and processed for photoconversion. (<b>A</b>) In unstimulated nerve endings, no apparent photoconversion was detected in the vesicular pool. (<b>B</b>) In stimulated nerve endings, large cisternae surrounded by photoconverted vesicles were observed. (<b>C</b>) Quantification of relative proportion of photoconverted vesicles. Vesicles were classified as recycling (RV; containing photoconverted electron-dense material) or synaptic (SV; non-photoconverted), falling into 3 categories: directly abutting the membrane of cisternae, within 350 nm of the cisternae and further away from the cisternae (color coding as indicated in the figure; n = 7 nerve terminals, 1580 vesicles quantified, 3 NMJ preparations). (<b>D</b>) Large intraterminal bulky structures and enlargement showing a few photolabeled vesicles in close contact with the membrane of the recyclosomes. The arrow indicates a probable nascent recycled vesicle. (<b>E–F</b>) Enlargement showing several photolabeled vesicles (arrowheads) in close contact with the membrane of the cisternae. (<b>G–H</b>) Enlargement showing photolabeled omega-shaped vesicles (arrow) in direct contact with the membrane of the cisternae. Scale bars 500 nm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocytosis", "synaptic", "vesicle", "recycling", "photoconversion"], "article_id"=>305355, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimation_of_the_contribution_of_bulk_endocytosis_to_synaptic_vesicle_recycling_by_photoconversion_of_FM1_43_/305355", "title"=>"Estimation of the contribution of bulk endocytosis to synaptic vesicle recycling by photoconversion of FM1-43.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:29:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328431", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328477", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328511", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328556", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328618", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328678", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328740", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328788", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328839", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/328923"], "description"=>"<div><p>Bulk endocytosis contributes to the maintenance of neurotransmission at the amphibian neuromuscular junction by regenerating synaptic vesicles. How nerve terminals internalize adequate portions of the presynaptic membrane when bulk endocytosis is initiated before the end of a sustained stimulation is unknown. A maturation process, occurring at the end of the stimulation, is hypothesised to precisely restore the pools of synaptic vesicles. Using confocal time-lapse microscopy of FM1-43-labeled nerve terminals at the amphibian neuromuscular junction, we confirm that bulk endocytosis is initiated during a sustained tetanic stimulation and reveal that shortly after the end of the stimulation, nerve terminals undergo a maturation process. This includes a transient bulging of the plasma membrane, followed by the development of large intraterminal FM1-43-positive donut-like structures comprising large bulk membrane cisternae surrounded by recycling vesicles. The degree of bulging increased with stimulation frequency and the plasmalemma surface retrieved following the transient bulging correlated with the surface membrane internalized in bulk cisternae and recycling vesicles. Dyngo-4a, a potent dynamin inhibitor, did not block the initiation, but prevented the maturation of bulk endocytosis. In contrast, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, hindered both the initiation and maturation processes. Both inhibitors hampered the functional recovery of neurotransmission after synaptic depletion. Our data confirm that initiation of bulk endocytosis occurs during stimulation and demonstrates that a delayed maturation process controlled by actin and dynamin underpins the coupling between exocytosis and bulk endocytosis.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["actin-", "dynamin-dependent", "maturation", "endocytosis", "restores", "neurotransmission", "synaptic", "depletion"], "article_id"=>124828, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Actin_and_Dynamin_Dependent_Maturation_of_Bulk_Endocytosis_Restores_Neurotransmission_following_Synaptic_Depletion/124828", "title"=>"Actin- and Dynamin-Dependent Maturation of Bulk Endocytosis Restores Neurotransmission following Synaptic Depletion", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:20:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/635021"], "description"=>"<p>Confocal time-lapse imaging of nerve terminals stimulated at selected frequencies was used to determine the amount of membrane surface area lost during the collapse phase following 20 Hz stimulation. The amount of membrane internalized in bulk endosomes and associated recycling vesicles was determined by estimating the recycling vesicle density from ultrastructural analysis of photoconverted NMJ preparations. Regression analysis of the ratio between the membrane surface area lost during nerve terminal collapse and the amount of membrane endocytosed in bulk endosomes and surrounding recycling vesicles at 5 Hz (<b>A</b>) and 10–20 Hz (<b>B</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["terminal", "plasma", "membrane", "couples", "exocytosis"], "article_id"=>305500, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Tam H. Nguyen", "Guillaume Maucort", "Robert K. P. Sullivan", "Mitja Schenning", "Nickolas A. Lavidis", "Adam McCluskey", "Phillip J. Robinson", "Frederic A. Meunier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036913.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bulging_and_collapse_of_nerve_terminal_plasma_membrane_couples_exocytosis_and_bulk_endocytosis_/305500", "title"=>"Bulging and collapse of nerve terminal plasma membrane couples exocytosis and bulk endocytosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-22 01:31:40"}

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