Less Is More: Latent Learning Is Maximized by Shorter Training Sessions in Auditory Perceptual Learning
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{"title"=>"Less is more: Latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Katharine", "last_name"=>"Molloy", "scopus_author_id"=>"55216487700"}, {"first_name"=>"David R.", "last_name"=>"Moore", "scopus_author_id"=>"35580993300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ediz", "last_name"=>"Sohoglu", "scopus_author_id"=>"37001964800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sygal", "last_name"=>"Amitay", "scopus_author_id"=>"8722984000"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84860998185", "pmid"=>"22606309", "sgr"=>"84860998185", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0036929", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364803150"}, "id"=>"9073adf9-56f3-3670-b634-6436fa51692c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/less-more-latent-learning-maximized-shorter-training-sessions-auditory-perceptual-learning", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>29, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>29}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639455"], "description"=>"<p>Group mean DLFs after the first 800 trials for groups T800, T400 and T200 from Experiment 1 (see Fig. 5B), and the T800 m group from Experiment 2. Data points are mean thresholds for 100 trials each, and solid lines are least squares logarithmic fits. Error bars were omitted, since analyses compared slopes not individual points.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates"], "article_id"=>309953, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_learning_rates_in_the_later_stage_of_training_/309953", "title"=>"Comparison of learning rates in the later stage of training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:16:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638885"], "description"=>"<p>Data points show mean group DLFs for each training block of 50 trials, and the post-test. Logarithmic and power curve fits to the mean learning data were compared <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929#pone.0036929-Anderson1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>. Learning was best fitted by a logarithmic function in all groups (power function least squares fits, mean r<sup>2</sup> = 0.78, logarithmic least squares fits, mean r<sup>2</sup> = 0.90). Logarithmic fits are indicated by solid curves in the figure. Bars along the top of the figure illustrate sessions in each group’s training regimen. Error bars were omitted for clarity as they overlap for all groups at each block.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fd"], "article_id"=>309379, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_FD_performance_with_training_/309379", "title"=>"Changes in FD performance with training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:13:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639313"], "description"=>"<p>Two groups trained on 800 trials of FD per day. The T800 m group completed four days of training and the T800 s group completed one. Tests consisted of assessment at the trained and an untrained frequency, and were conducted at the beginning of Days 1, 2 and 5, and then one week (Day 12) and four weeks afterwards (Day 33). A five trial demo preceded the experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regimens"], "article_id"=>309805, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Training_regimens_for_Experiment_2_/309805", "title"=>"Training regimens for Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:15:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639376"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Group mean thresholds for training. Solid lines are least squares logarithmic fits. Error bars were omitted for clarity as they overlapped at each point. Note that the pre-test (where groups were initially matched) is not included in this figure or in fitting the learning curves (B) Pre-, post- and retention tests at the trained frequency (1 kHz), adjusted for individual differences in pre-test performance at 1 kHz. (C) Pre-, post- and retention tests at the untrained frequency (4 kHz), adjusted for individual differences in pre-test performance at 4 kHz. Error bars in panels B and C show ±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multi-session", "retention"], "article_id"=>309870, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_single_and_multi_session_training_for_learning_retention_and_transfer_of_learning_/309870", "title"=>"Comparison of single and multi-session training for learning, retention and transfer of learning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:15:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639183"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Group mean within-session changes for groups T800, T400 and T200. (B) Group mean between-session changes in all training groups. The gap between bars 5 and 8 in A and B indicate a weekend break. Error bars show ±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["between-session", "changes"], "article_id"=>309679, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Within_and_between_session_changes_in_performance_/309679", "title"=>"Within- and between-session changes in performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:14:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638945"], "description"=>"<p>Group mean DLFs for initial performance (first two blocks), post-test (immediately after end of training) and retention test (4–6 weeks later). Groups were no longer matched because only a subset of the participants returned for the retention test, so DLFs were adjusted for individual differences in initial DLFs <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929#pone.0036929-Cohen1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>. Error bars show ±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fd", "cessation"], "article_id"=>309439, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Retention_of_FD_learning_following_cessation_of_training_/309439", "title"=>"Retention of FD learning following cessation of training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:13:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638816"], "description"=>"<p>Groups T800, T400 and T200 trained on 1600 trials of FD overall, with 800, 400 and 200 trials per day, respectively. Group T100 trained on 800 trials of FD overall, with 100 trials per day. A five-trial demo preceded the training, and 100 trials were run the day after training was completed (post-test), and 4–6 weeks after training was completed (retention test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regimens"], "article_id"=>309305, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Training_regimens_for_Experiment_1_/309305", "title"=>"Training regimens for Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:13:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639259"], "description"=>"<p>Amount of between-session improvement plotted as a function of mean DLFs on the last two blocks of the session. Dashed line indicates the regression fit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["between-session"], "article_id"=>309754, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_performance_and_between_session_learning_/309754", "title"=>"Correlation between performance and between-session learning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:15:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638755"], "description"=>"<p>Lines represent different hypothetical learning curves in situations where between- and within-session changes are combined in different ways.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["courses"], "article_id"=>309247, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schema_of_different_time_courses_for_learning_/309247", "title"=>"Schema of different time courses for learning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:12:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639007"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Group mean DLFs for the first 800 trials for all groups. (B) Group mean DLFs for the second 800 trials for groups T800, T400 and T200. Solid lines are least squares logarithmic fits plotted on a log-log scale to appear linear. Error bars were omitted, since analyses compared slopes not individual points. Bars along the top of the figure illustrate sessions in each group’s training regimen. Note the different DLF axis scales in A and B.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["curves", "stages"], "article_id"=>309500, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Learning_curves_for_early_and_late_stages_of_training_/309500", "title"=>"Learning curves for early and late stages of training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:14:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639108"], "description"=>"<p>Group mean DLFs for each training day. DLFs from block 1 are plotted at the far left, followed by daily DLFs for each training day (note that the block 1 DLFs were not reused in calculating the mean for Day 1). Solid lines are least squares logarithmic fits plotted on a log-log scale to appear linear. Error bars were omitted, since analyses compared slopes not individual points.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "physiology", "Computational biology", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>309599, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine Molloy", "David R. Moore", "Ediz Sohoglu", "Sygal Amitay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036929.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progress_of_learning_over_training_days_/309599", "title"=>"Progress of learning over training days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:14:35"}

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Relative Metric

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