Theropod Fauna from Southern Australia Indicates High Polar Diversity and Climate-Driven Dinosaur Provinciality
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{"title"=>"Theropod fauna from Southern Australia indicates high polar diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roger B.J.", "last_name"=>"Benson", "scopus_author_id"=>"23396137400"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas H.", "last_name"=>"Rich", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102734177"}, {"first_name"=>"Patricia", "last_name"=>"Vickers-Rich", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602183345"}, {"first_name"=>"Mike", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"35408183800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84861205004", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0037122", "pui"=>"364837319", "pmid"=>"22615916", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861205004", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"13398382-7e39-31d1-8b34-665ee9c5b70b", "abstract"=>"The Early Cretaceous fauna of Victoria, Australia, provides unique data on the composition of high latitude southern hemisphere dinosaurs. We describe and review theropod dinosaur postcranial remains from the Aptian-Albian Otway and Strzelecki groups, based on at least 37 isolated bones, and more than 90 teeth from the Flat Rocks locality. Several specimens of medium- and large-bodied individuals (estimated up to ~8.5 metres long) represent allosauroids. Tyrannosauroids are represented by elements indicating medium body sizes (~3 metres long), likely including the holotype femur of Timimus hermani, and a single cervical vertebra represents a juvenile spinosaurid. Single specimens representing medium- and small-bodied theropods may be referrable to Ceratosauria, Ornithomimosauria, a basal coelurosaur, and at least three taxa within Maniraptora. Thus, nine theropod taxa may have been present. Alternatively, four distinct dorsal vertebrae indicate a minimum of four taxa. However, because most taxa are known from single bones, it is likely that small-bodied theropod diversity remains underestimated. The high abundance of allosauroids and basal coelurosaurs (including tyrannosauroids and possibly ornithomimosaurs), and the relative rarity of ceratosaurs, is strikingly dissimilar to penecontemporaneous dinosaur faunas of Africa and South America, which represent an arid, lower-latitude biome. Similarities between dinosaur faunas of Victoria and the northern continents concern the proportional representatation of higher clades, and may result from the prevailing temperate-polar climate of Australia, especially at high latitudes in Victoria, which is similar to the predominant warm-temperate climate of Laurasia, but distinct from the arid climate zone that covered extensive areas of Gondwana. Most dinosaur groups probably attained a near-cosmopolitan distribution in the Jurassic, prior to fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent, and some aspects of the hallmark 'Gondwanan' fauna of South America and Africa may therefore reflect climate-driven provinciality, not vicariant evolution driven by continental fragmentation. However, vicariance may still be detected at lower phylogenetic levels.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/theropod-fauna-southern-australia-indicates-high-polar-diversity-climatedriven-dinosaur-provincialit", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>24, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>24}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640681"], "description"=>"<p>NMV P186151 in left side (A), right side (B), ventral (C), dorsal (D), proximal (E), and distal (F) views. Abbreviation: clp, collateral ligament pit. Scale bar equals 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phalanx", "referred", "theropoda"], "article_id"=>311177, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g023", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Pedal_phalanx_referred_to_Theropoda_indet_/311177", "title"=>"Pedal phalanx referred to Theropoda indet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:23:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639977"], "description"=>"<p>Tyrannosauroid right pubis and conjoined distal expansions NMV P186046 (A–D), coelurosaurian left pubis NMV P180880 (E–I), albertosaurine tyrannosauroid right pubis (J), <i>Tyrannosaurus</i> conjoined mid-distal pubes (K; modified from Brochu 2002), and casts of pubes of the allosauroid <i>Aerosteon</i> (L–M) in lateral (A, E, J, L), anterior (B, G, K, M), medial (C, H), distal (D, F), and posterior (I) views. Abbreviations: aexp, anterior expansion; papr, pubic paron; pexp, posterior expansion; pufen, interpubic fenestra; put, pubic tubercle. Scale bars equal 50 mm (A–I) and 10 mm (J–M).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>310471, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Theropod_pubes_/310471", "title"=>"Theropod pubes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:19:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639823"], "description"=>"<p>In line drawing (B), dark grey tone indicates broken surface, light grey tone indicates restoration. Abbreviations: brfos, brevis fossa; isped, ischial peduncle; pbl, posterior blade; puped, pubic peduncle; sac, supraacetabular crest. Scale bar equals 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ilium", "nmv", "p186057", "lateral", "medial", "anterior", "ventral", "dorsal"], "article_id"=>310307, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Avetheropod_right_ilium_NMV_P186057_in_lateral_A_B_medial_C_anterior_D_ventral_E_and_dorsal_F_views_/310307", "title"=>"Avetheropod right ilium NMV P186057 in lateral (A–B), medial (C), anterior (D), ventral (E), and dorsal (F) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:18:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640499"], "description"=>"<p>Megaraptoran astragalus NMV P150070 (A–E) and ceratosaur astragalocalcaneum NMV P221202 (F–G) in anterior (A, F), ventral (B), medial (C), lateral (D), posterodorsomedial (E), and posterior (G) views. Abbreviations: apr, ascending process; caf, calcaneal facet. Scale bars equal 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proximal"], "article_id"=>310993, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g021", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Theropod_left_proximal_tarsals_/310993", "title"=>"Theropod left proximal tarsals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:22:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638724"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: hys, hyposphene; poz, postzygapophysis; trp, transverse process. Scale bar equals 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caudal", "vertebra", "nmv", "p186168", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "ventral", "dorsal"], "article_id"=>309207, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Ornithomimosaur_like_caudal_vertebra_NMV_P186168_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_right_lateral_D_ventral_E_and_dorsal_F_views_/309207", "title"=>"Ornithomimosaur-like caudal vertebra NMV P186168 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), right lateral (D), ventral (E), and dorsal (F) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:12:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640807"], "description"=>"<p>NMV P186353 (A–C), P210084 (D–F), P212859 (G–I), and P230871 (J–K) in labial (A, G), lingual (B, D, I), distal (C, F, H), mesial (E) and undetermined (J–K) views. Scale bars equal 5 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["teeth", "rocks", "preliminarily", "referred"], "article_id"=>311301, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g024", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Theropod_teeth_from_the_Flat_Rocks_Site_preliminarily_referred_to_Megaraptora_/311301", "title"=>"Theropod teeth from the Flat Rocks Site preliminarily referred to Megaraptora.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:23:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640341"], "description"=>"<p>Maniraptoran left femur NMV P186323 (A–F), proximal portion of an unenlagiine right femur NMV P180889 (G–L), and indeterminate coelurosaurian femur NMV P230845 (M–O) in anterior (A, G, M), medial (B, H, N), posterior (C, J), lateral (D, L, O), proximal (E, I), distal (F) and anteromedial (K) views Abbreviations: 4 t, fourth trochanter; ctf, crista tibiofibularis; for, foramen; gtr, greater trochanter; lcon, lateral condyle; ltr, lesser trochanter; mcon, medial condyle; ptr, posterior trochanter. Scale bars equal 50 mm (A–D, G–J, M–O) and 20 mm (E–F, K–L).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>310838, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Theropod_femora_/310838", "title"=>"Theropod femora.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640599"], "description"=>"<p>NMV P180856 (A–F) and P209990 (G–M) in medial/lateral (A–B, D, G–H, J), ventral (C, K), dorsal (E, I), proximal sectional (L), and distal (F, M) views. Scale bars equal 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["referred", "theropoda"], "article_id"=>311091, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g022", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Metatarsals_referred_to_Theropoda_indet_/311091", "title"=>"Metatarsals referred to Theropoda indet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:22:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640195"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: 4 t, fourth trochanter; act, accessory trochanter; ctf, crista tibiofibularis; extgr, extensor groove; lcon, lateral condyle; ltr, lesser trochanter; mcon, medial condyle; pfl, posterior flange. Scale bars equal 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "nmv", "p186303", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "medial", "proximal", "posteroproximal", "distal"], "article_id"=>310674, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Holotypic_left_femur_of_i_Timimus_hermani_i_NMV_P186303_in_anterior_A_lateral_B_C_posterior_D_F_medial_E_proximal_G_posteroproximal_H_and_distal_I_views_/310674", "title"=>"Holotypic left femur of <i>Timimus hermani</i> NMV P186303 in anterior (A), lateral (B–C), posterior (D, F), medial (E), proximal (G), posteroproximal (H) and distal (I) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:20:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639272"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: ole, olecranon process. Scale bars equal 50 mm (A–D) and 20 mm (E, F).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ulna", "nmv", "p186076", "lateral", "anterior", "medial", "posterior", "distal", "proximal"], "article_id"=>309755, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Neovenatorid_left_ulna_NMV_P186076_in_lateral_A_anterior_B_medial_C_posterior_D_distal_E_and_proximal_F_views_/309755", "title"=>"Neovenatorid left ulna NMV P186076 in lateral (A), anterior (B), medial (C), posterior (D), distal (E) and proximal (F) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:15:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638582"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: pneu, pneumatic foramen; trp, transverse process. Scale bar equals 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal", "vertebra", "nmv", "p208234", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "ventral"], "article_id"=>309072, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Tetanuran_dorsal_vertebra_NMV_P208234_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_ventral_D_dorsal_E_and_right_lateral_F_views_/309072", "title"=>"Tetanuran dorsal vertebra NMV P208234 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), ventral (D), dorsal (E), and right lateral (F) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/637818"], "description"=>"<p>(A) overview map of Australia, (B) magnification of the southern Victorian (and South Australian) coast showing locations of the Otway and Strzelecki ranges, (C) Otway Ranges locality map, (D) Strzelecki Ranges locality map. Outcrop of the Eumarella Formation (C) and Wonthaggi Formation (D) is indicated with grey shading.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["theropod"], "article_id"=>308306, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Victorian_theropod_localities_/308306", "title"=>"Victorian theropod localities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:07:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638341"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: hys, hyposphene; ipof, infrapostzygapophyseal fossa; ns, neural spine; pap, parapophysis; padl, paradiapophyseal lamina; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; spt, spine table; trp, transverse process. Scale bar equals 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal", "vertebra", "nmv", "p216672", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "ventral"], "article_id"=>308822, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Maniraptoran_dorsal_vertebra_NMV_P216672_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_dorsal_D_ventral_E_and_right_lateral_F_views_/308822", "title"=>"Maniraptoran dorsal vertebra NMV P216672 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), dorsal (D), ventral (E) and right lateral (F) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:10:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639586"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122#pone.0037122-Benson6\" target=\"_blank\">[<b>131</b>]</a><b>) and the spinosaurid megalosauroid </b><b><i>Suchomimus</i></b><b> MNN GDF 500 (G–H) in left side (A, E, G), proximal (B), right side (C) and ventral (D, F, H) views.</b> Note that the spinosaurid manual ungual phalanx is transversely broad proximally, unlike the allosauroid and NMV P186153. Scale bars equal 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ungual", "phalanx", "neovenatorid", "allosauroid", "nmv", "p186153", "compared", "ivpp", "modified"], "article_id"=>310066, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>174, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Manual_ungual_phalanx_I_of_a_large_neovenatorid_allosauroid_NMV_P186153_A_D_compared_to_those_of_the_allosauroid_i_Chilantaisaurus_i_IVPP_V_2884_2_E_F_modified_from/310066", "title"=>"Manual ungual phalanx ?I of a large neovenatorid allosauroid NMV P186153 (A–D) compared to those of the allosauroid <i>Chilantaisaurus</i> IVPP V.2884.2 (E–F; modified from", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:17:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639708"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bars equal 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ungual", "phalanges", "nmv", "p10058", "p199085", "p208512", "proximal", "dorsal", "ventral"], "article_id"=>310184, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Theropod_ungual_phalanges_NMV_P10058_A_E_P199085_F_J_and_P208512_K_O_in_left_side_A_F_K_proximal_B_G_M_right_side_C_H_N_dorsal_D_I_L_ventral_E_J_O_views_/310184", "title"=>"Theropod ungual phalanges NMV P10058 (A–E), P199085 (F–J) and P208512 (K–O) in left side (A, F, K), proximal (B, G, M), right side (C, H, N), dorsal (D, I, L), ventral (E, J, O) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:17:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639150"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviation: pvpr, posteroventral process. Scale bar equals 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coracoid", "nmv", "p186327", "lateral", "medial", "ventral"], "article_id"=>309637, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Avetheropodan_right_coracoid_NMV_P186327_in_lateral_A_medial_B_and_ventral_C_views_/309637", "title"=>"Avetheropodan right coracoid NMV P186327 in lateral (A), medial (B), and ventral (C) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:14:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640912"], "description"=>"<p>All specimens are housed at the NMV. Abbreviations:</p>*<p>, measurement excluding convex anterior articular surface, centrum height and width are measured anteriorly; c+, length increased by crushing; c−, length decreased by crushing; (pos.), measurement of posterior articular surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["theropod", "vertebrae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>311408, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Selected_measurement_in_mm_of_theropod_vertebrae_from_the_Early_Cretaceous_of_Victoria_/311408", "title"=>"Selected measurement (in mm) of theropod vertebrae from the Early Cretaceous of Victoria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:24:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/637903"], "description"=>"<p>Summary cladogram of theropod relationships.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cladogram", "theropod"], "article_id"=>308398, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Summary_cladogram_of_theropod_relationships_/308398", "title"=>"Summary cladogram of theropod relationships.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639059"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviation: prz, prezygapophysis. Scale bars equal 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distal", "caudal", "vertebrae", "nmv", "p210090", "p216642", "p185858", "p199783", "anterior", "lateral", "dorsal", "ventral"], "article_id"=>309537, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Theropod_distal_caudal_vertebrae_NMV_P210090_A_D_P216642_E_G_P185858_H_and_P199783_I_in_anterior_A_E_left_lateral_B_F_H_I_dorsal_C_and_ventral_D_G_views_/309537", "title"=>"Theropod distal caudal vertebrae NMV P210090 (A–D), P216642 (E–G), P185858 (H) and P199783 (I) in anterior (A, E), left lateral (B, F, H–I), dorsal (C), and ventral (D, G) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:14:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638462"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; h.lam, horizontal lamina; hys, hyposphene; ns, neural spine; pap, parapophysis; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pneu, pneumatic foramen; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; trp, transverse process. Scale bar equals 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal", "vertebra", "nmv", "p186302", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "ventral"], "article_id"=>308946, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Maniraptoran_dorsal_vertebra_NMV_P186302_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_dorsal_D_ventral_E_and_right_lateral_F_views_/308946", "title"=>"Maniraptoran dorsal vertebra NMV P186302 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), dorsal (D), ventral (E), and right lateral (F) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:11:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/640949"], "description"=>"<p>All specimens are housed at the NMV. Abbreviations: I, measurement of incomplete specimen; c+ length increased by crushing; c−, length decreased by crushing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["theropod", "appendicular", "bones", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>311437, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Selected_measurements_in_mm_of_theropod_appendicular_bones_from_the_Early_Cretaceous_of_Victoria_/311437", "title"=>"Selected measurements (in mm) of theropod appendicular bones from the Early Cretaceous of Victoria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:24:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/639459"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bars equal 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["theropod", "phalanges", "nmv", "p199050", "p186054", "p180899", "dorsal", "ventral", "distal", "proximal"], "article_id"=>309940, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Large_theropod_manual_phalanges_NMV_P199050_A_F_P186054_G_J_and_P180899_K_N_in_dorsal_A_G_K_ventral_B_H_left_side_C_I_L_distal_D_J_N_proximal_E_and_right_side_F_M_views_/309940", "title"=>"Large theropod manual phalanges NMV P199050 (A–F), P186054 (G–J) and P180899 (K–N) in dorsal (A, G, K), ventral (B, H), left side (C, I, L), distal (D, J, N), proximal (E), and right side (F, M) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:16:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638943"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviation: pneu, pneumatic foramen; ncs, neurocentral contact. Scale bar equals 20 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caudal", "centrum", "nmv", "p208096", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "dorsal", "ventral"], "article_id"=>309425, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Neovenatorid_middle_caudal_centrum_NMV_P208096_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_dorsal_D_ventral_E_and_right_lateral_F_views_/309425", "title"=>"Neovenatorid middle caudal centrum NMV P208096 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), dorsal (D), ventral (E), and right lateral (F) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:13:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638841"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: ns, neural spine; prz, prezygapophysis; trp, transverse process. Scale bar equals 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["theropod", "caudal", "neural", "arch", "nmv", "p212840", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "dorsal", "ventral"], "article_id"=>309323, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Large_theropod_caudal_neural_arch_NMV_P212840_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_dorsal_D_and_ventral_E_views_/309323", "title"=>"Large theropod caudal neural arch NMV P212840 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), dorsal (D), and ventral (E) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:13:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638060"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: cam, camera [internal chamber within vertebra]; lam, lamina; ncs, neurocentral contact; pap, parapophysis; pneu, pneumatic foramen; prz, prezygapophysis; trp, transverse process. Scale bars equal 20 mm (A–G) and 50 mm (H).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cervical", "vertebra", "nmv", "p221081", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "dorsal", "ventral", "views", "enlargement", "camerate", "pneumatic"], "article_id"=>308535, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Spinosaurid_cervical_vertebra_NMV_P221081_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_dorsal_D_ventral_E_and_right_lateral_F_views_with_G_enlargement_showing_camerate_internal_pneumatic_structure_H_cervical_vertebra_of_i_Baryonyx_i_NHMUK_R9951_in_left_latera/308535", "title"=>"Spinosaurid cervical vertebra NMV P221081 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), dorsal (D), ventral (E) and right lateral (F) views with (G) enlargement showing camerate internal pneumatic structure; (H) cervical vertebra of <i>Baryonyx</i> (N", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:09:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/638231"], "description"=>"<p>(E) shows the a posterior view of a break in the centrum, revealing camellate internal structure. Abbreviations: ncs, neurocentral suture; pneu, pneumatic foramen. Scale bar equals 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allosauroid", "centrum", "nmv", "p221187", "anterior", "lateral", "posterior", "cross-sectional", "ventral", "dorsal"], "article_id"=>308709, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Roger B. J. Benson", "Thomas H. Rich", "Patricia Vickers-Rich", "Mike Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037122.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Neovenatorid_allosauroid_centrum_NMV_P221187_in_anterior_A_left_lateral_B_posterior_C_right_lateral_D_cross_sectional_E_ventral_F_and_dorsal_G_views_/308709", "title"=>"Neovenatorid allosauroid centrum NMV P221187 in anterior (A), left lateral (B), posterior (C), right lateral (D), cross-sectional (E), ventral (F), and dorsal (G) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 05:09:59"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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