An Individual-Oriented Model on the Emergence of Support in Fights, Its Reciprocation and Exchange
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{"title"=>"An individual-oriented model on the emergence of support in fights, its reciprocation and exchange", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Charlotte K.", "last_name"=>"Hemelrijk", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003470646"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivan", "last_name"=>"Puga-Gonzalez", "scopus_author_id"=>"35730337300"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364913198", "sgr"=>"84861633832", "pmid"=>"22666348", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861633832", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0037271", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"c8566495-8857-39c8-bad8-9c44de302229", "abstract"=>"Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation), their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and 'spiteful acts' and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by means of existing data.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/individualoriented-model-emergence-support-fights-reciprocation-exchange", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Psychology"=>9, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>9}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>2, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630425"], "description"=>"<p>Results represent the average over 10 runs. P-value based on the Bonferroni correction:</p>*<p> = p<0.05;</p>**<p> = p<0.01,</p>***<p> = p<0.001. In <b>bold:</b> results that differ from the full model. NA = Not Available.</p>1<p>Among all individuals.</p>2<p>4 correlations (5% of 72 correlations) are considered to be a type I error.</p>3<p>Supporter higher ranking than target and recipient: + more frequent than chance; − less frequent than chance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["affiliation", "patterns", "females", "taking"], "article_id"=>300922, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Charlotte K. Hemelrijk", "Ivan Puga-Gonzalez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dominance_affiliation_and_coalition_patterns_among_females_in_the_model_when_taking_out_different_assumptions_/300922", "title"=>"Dominance, affiliation and coalition patterns among females in the model when taking out different assumptions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:15:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326437", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326474", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326530", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326593", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326651", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326694", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326749", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326877"], "description"=>"<div><p>Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation), their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and ‘spiteful acts’ and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by means of existing data.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individual-oriented", "emergence", "reciprocation"], "article_id"=>124436, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Charlotte K. Hemelrijk", "Ivan Puga-Gonzalez"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/An_Individual_Oriented_Model_on_the_Emergence_of_Support_in_Fights_Its_Reciprocation_and_Exchange/124436", "title"=>"An Individual-Oriented Model on the Emergence of Support in Fights, Its Reciprocation and Exchange", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 01:13:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630511"], "description"=>"<p>Coalition patterns: empirical results of egalitarian and despotic species are lumped except for the frequency of coalition types which are reported in a single study <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Vasey1\" target=\"_blank\">[121]</a>. Results represent the average over 10 runs. P-value based on the Bonferroni correction:</p>*<p> = p<0.05;</p>**<p> = p<0.01,</p>***<p> = p<0.001.</p>1<p>Among all individuals.</p>2<p>See our previously analyzed empirical data in: <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-PugaGonzalez1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>;</p>3<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Hemelrijk7\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>.</p>4<p>These species include more than macaques, also baboons and chimpanzees.</p>5<p>Excluding vocal coalitions/including vocal coalitions.</p>6<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-deWaal4\" target=\"_blank\">[90]</a>.</p>7<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Vasey1\" target=\"_blank\">[121]</a>.</p>8<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Schino1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>: This study concerns males and females combined;</p>9<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Perry1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>;</p>10<p>Omitting support from the relationship quality index <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Perry1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>;</p>11<p>13,26,28,29 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone-0037271-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>;</p>12<p>2,6,8,9,13,14,18,19,20,29 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone-0037271-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>;</p>13<p>4,11,12,13,29 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone-0037271-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>14<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Hemelrijk4\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>.</p>15<p>Supporter higher ranking than target and recipient: + more frequent than chance; − less frequent than chance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["affiliation", "patterns", "empirical"], "article_id"=>301009, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Charlotte K. Hemelrijk", "Ivan Puga-Gonzalez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dominance_affiliation_and_coalition_patterns_among_females_empirical_data_and_GrooFiWorld_/301009", "title"=>"Dominance, affiliation and coalition patterns among females: empirical data and GrooFiWorld.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:16:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630341"], "description"=>"<p>At time 1, individuals <i>A</i> and <i>B</i> are fighting. At time 2, individual <i>C</i> attacks <i>B</i> and hereby supports <i>A</i> and opposes <i>B</i> (contra-support). Individual <i>C</i> is the supporter and individual <i>B</i> is the target (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271.s008\" target=\"_blank\">video S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "ecology", "computer science", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>300834, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Charlotte K. Hemelrijk", "Ivan Puga-Gonzalez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coalitions_in_GrooFiWorld_/300834", "title"=>"Coalitions in GrooFiWorld.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:13:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630387"], "description"=>"1<p>This is in line with the model-based predictions by van Schaik and co-authors <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-vanSchaik1\" target=\"_blank\">[128]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "ecology", "computer science", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>300880, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Charlotte K. Hemelrijk", "Ivan Puga-Gonzalez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_based_hypotheses_/300880", "title"=>"Model-based hypotheses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:14:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630480"], "description"=>"<p>Default parameter values in ‘GrooFiWorld’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameter"], "article_id"=>300989, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Charlotte K. Hemelrijk", "Ivan Puga-Gonzalez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Default_parameter_values_in_8216_GrooFiWorld_8217_/300989", "title"=>"Default parameter values in ‘GrooFiWorld’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630457"], "description"=>"<p>Coalition types: C:Conservative, B:Bridging, R:Revolutionary <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Chapais1\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a>. NA: not available. --: not tested.</p>1<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271#pone.0037271-Thierry1\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>.</p>2<p>Only partial Tau-Kr value reported.</p>3<p>Calculated here using published data.</p>4<p>Physical support/physical and vocal support.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "females", "old-world"], "article_id"=>300956, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Charlotte K. Hemelrijk", "Ivan Puga-Gonzalez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037271.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coalition_patterns_among_adult_females_in_Old_World_primates_/300956", "title"=>"Coalition patterns among adult females in Old-World primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:15:56"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[354, 559, 676, 770, 854, 949, 1040, 1128, 1220, 1295, 1364, 1439, 1511, 1580, 1636, 1693, 1753, 1808, 1882, 1944, 2019, 2070, 2120, 2176, 2247]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[325, 542, 658, 757, 836, 925, 1015, 1095, 1177, 1263, 1338, 1411, 1477, 1537, 1599, 1663, 1726, 1795, 1857, 1921, 1979, 2041, 2099, 2150, 2205]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[360, 554, 661, 756, 829, 913, 992, 1072, 1144, 1228, 1306, 1378, 1439, 1500, 1558, 1627, 1689, 1754, 1826, 1892, 1951, 2009, 2067, 2130, 2200]}]}
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