Humans Running in Place on Water at Simulated Reduced Gravity
Publication Date
July 18, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Alberto E. Minetti, Yuri P. Ivanenko, Germana Cappellini, Nadia Dominici, et al
Volume
7
Issue
7
Pages
e37300
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0037300
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22815681
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3399875
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22815681
Web of Science
000306548900004
Scopus
84864021940
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/humans-running-place-water-simulated-reduced-gravity
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317057", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317122"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth’s gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower) gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["humans", "simulated", "reduced"], "article_id"=>122590, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Alberto E. Minetti", "Yuri P. Ivanenko", "Germana Cappellini", "Nadia Dominici", "Francesco Lacquaniti"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>104, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Humans_Running_in_Place_on_Water_at_Simulated_Reduced_Gravity/122590", "title"=>"Humans Running in Place on Water at Simulated Reduced Gravity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 00:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607198"], "description"=>"<p>The graphic area below the dashed curves represents the mass-frequency combinations at which water cavity seals before protraction and the impulse is not enough to run on water. The graphic area between the dashed and the solid curves represents the mass-frequency combinations at which the impulse is still not enough but the water cavity does not seal before protraction. The graphic area above the solid curves is the ‘safe area’ where mass and frequency involve a sufficient impulse and water does not seal before the end of protraction. Symbols represent the Basilisk lizard (open diamond), the Western Grebe (open circle) and humans (open square).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["accelerations", "shown", "stride"], "article_id"=>277691, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Alberto E. Minetti", "Yuri P. Ivanenko", "Germana Cappellini", "Nadia Dominici", "Francesco Lacquaniti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predictions_for_two_gravity_accelerations_Earth_black_and_Moon_grey_are_shown_in_terms_of_body_mass_and_stride_frequency_/277691", "title"=>"Predictions for two gravity accelerations (Earth - black and Moon - grey) are shown in terms of body mass and stride frequency.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:08:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607059"], "description"=>"<p>The subject initially experienced 0% gravity (100% body weight suspension, BWS) then the system was gradually set to the desired value. The upmost signal reflects the force measured by the load cell, while the lower curves represent the vertical coordinate of hip and shoulder, as measured by the motion analysis system. Red and blue curves refer to right and left markers, respectively, while the black one is the average value. ‘CoG trunk’ curve has been calculated as the average of the 4 markers to represent the vertical motion of the head-trunk segment, which approximates the body centre of mass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tracings", "simulated"], "article_id"=>277551, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Alberto E. Minetti", "Yuri P. Ivanenko", "Germana Cappellini", "Nadia Dominici", "Francesco Lacquaniti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_tracings_at_16_g_EARTH_Moon_simulated_gravity_/277551", "title"=>"Experimental tracings at 16% g<sub>EARTH</sub> (Moon) simulated gravity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:05:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607320"], "description"=>"<p>Successful subjects, stride frequency (mean±SD) and maximal knee vertical speed during walking on water at different simulated gravity levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stride", "maximal", "simulated"], "article_id"=>277808, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Alberto E. Minetti", "Yuri P. Ivanenko", "Germana Cappellini", "Nadia Dominici", "Francesco Lacquaniti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Successful_subjects_stride_frequency_mean_177_SD_and_maximal_knee_vertical_speed_during_walking_on_water_at_different_simulated_gravity_levels_/277808", "title"=>"Successful subjects, stride frequency (mean±SD) and maximal knee vertical speed during walking on water at different simulated gravity levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:10:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/606934"], "description"=>"<p>Bars represent the number of subjects, out of 6, capable to avoid sinking at different simulated gravity values. Both variables show that 22% of g<sub>EARTH</sub> is the maximum gravity at which humans can run on water, when assisted by a small rigid fin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["represents", "illustrated"], "article_id"=>277426, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Alberto E. Minetti", "Yuri P. Ivanenko", "Germana Cappellini", "Nadia Dominici", "Francesco Lacquaniti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_curve_represents_the_net_vertical_impulse_available__as_predicted_by_the_illustrated_model_/277426", "title"=>"The curve represents the net vertical impulse available ( = ), as predicted by the illustrated model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:03:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/606821"], "description"=>"<p>The fins used are illustrated in C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["basilisk", "lizard", "conditions"], "article_id"=>277311, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Alberto E. Minetti", "Yuri P. Ivanenko", "Germana Cappellini", "Nadia Dominici", "Francesco Lacquaniti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037300.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Running_on_water_in_Basilisk_lizard_A_Basiliscus_basiliscus_and_human_in_our_laboratory_conditions_B_/277311", "title"=>"Running on water in Basilisk lizard (A, <i>Basiliscus basiliscus</i>), and human in our laboratory conditions (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:01:51"}

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Relative Metric

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