Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines
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{"title"=>"Conflict of interest policies for organizations producing a large number of clinical practice guidelines", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Susan L.", "last_name"=>"Norris", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103213643"}, {"first_name"=>"Haley K.", "last_name"=>"Holmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55026842400"}, {"first_name"=>"Brittany U.", "last_name"=>"Burda", "scopus_author_id"=>"36993033800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lauren A.", "last_name"=>"Ogden", "scopus_author_id"=>"47161524100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rongwei", "last_name"=>"Fu", "scopus_author_id"=>"8727350800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22629391", "sgr"=>"84861316097", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0037413", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861316097", "pui"=>"364858040", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"8aa3cf96-5fc9-308a-b279-2e78fbd32203", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/conflict-interest-policies-organizations-producing-large-number-clinical-practice-guidelines", "reader_count"=>14, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634384"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: COI, conflict of interest; CPG: clinical practice guideline; GDG, guideline development group.</p>(*)<p>We did not assess this standard as it would not be included in a COI policy.</p>†<p>An organizations' COI policy must include all listed criteria in order to meet this standard in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413#pone-0037413-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>.</p>¥<p>Not applicable to COI policies that exclude any COI among guideline panel members.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["standards", "trustworthy", "guidelines"], "article_id"=>304880, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Susan L. Norris", "Haley K. Holmer", "Brittany U. Burda", "Lauren A. Ogden", "Rongwei Fu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Institute_of_Medicine_standards_for_developing_trustworthy_clinical_practice_guidelines_2011_1_/304880", "title"=>"Institute of Medicine standards for developing trustworthy clinical practice guidelines (2011)[1].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:50:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634349"], "description"=>"*<p>Financial COI declared in ranges (less than $10,000, $10,000 to $25,000, and greater than $25,000).</p>†<p>Having a financial interest of greater than $5,000 in an individual pharmaceutical company or an individual manufacturer of medical instruments, devices or equipment; acceptance of anything with a value greater than $25 for their personal use from an individual pharmaceutical company or an individual manufacturer of medical instruments, devices or equipment.</p>‡<p>Required to disclosure amounts greater than $10,000 per year or as determined through reference to public prices or other reasonable measure of fair market value, or represents more than 5% ownership interest in any single entity.</p>§<p>RNAO requires that all members declare COI in writing during recruitment or selection of guideline panel members, but no other information is provided in their policy.</p><p>Key to types of conflict of interest: C: paid consultancy or speaking engagement. S: research or salary support. P: patent or royalties. E: equity or stock. G: gifts. O: other (e.g., travel grants). I: non-financial or intellectual (not otherwise specified). V: opinion or viewpoint.</p><p>Abbreviations: COI, conflict of interest; NA, not applicable; NR, not reported; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413#pone-0037413-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for abbreviations for the guideline organizations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["policies", "non-financial"], "article_id"=>304841, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Susan L. Norris", "Haley K. Holmer", "Brittany U. Burda", "Lauren A. Ogden", "Rongwei Fu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Organizational_policies_on_financial_and_non_financial_conflict_of_interest_n_8202_8202_17_/304841", "title"=>"Organizational policies on financial and non-financial conflict of interest (n = 17).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:49:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634327"], "description"=>"*<p>Number of CPGs published between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010 (search date).</p>†<p>As identified on the CMSS website (<a href=\"http://www.cmss.org/OriginalSigners.aspx\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.cmss.org/OriginalSigners.aspx</a>).</p>‡<p>Consortium sponsored by five state health plans (payers) and comprised of 62 medical groups (providers).</p>§<p>Consortium of healthcare providers, payers and specialty societies.</p><p>Abbreviations: CMSS: Council of Medical Specialty Societies; COI: conflict of interest; CPG: clinical practice guideline; INF: information not found; NA: not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["included", "organizations"], "article_id"=>304815, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Susan L. Norris", "Haley K. Holmer", "Brittany U. Burda", "Lauren A. Ogden", "Rongwei Fu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_included_organizations_n_8202_8202_37_/304815", "title"=>"Characteristics of included organizations (n = 37).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:49:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634264"], "description"=>"*<p>Disclosure management strategy goes beyond simply requiring clinical practice guideline members to disclose conflicts of interest (COI). Management strategies include, for example, descriptions of who assesses and/or manages the disclosures, penalties for non-disclosure, detailed decision-making processes, limitations placed on individuals with COI, or prohibition from participation.</p><p>Abbreviations: COI, conflict of interest; NR, not reported; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413#pone-0037413-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for abbreviations of the guideline organizations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["requirements", "strategies", "organizations"], "article_id"=>304757, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Susan L. Norris", "Haley K. Holmer", "Brittany U. Burda", "Lauren A. Ogden", "Rongwei Fu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Disclosure_requirements_and_conflict_of_interest_management_strategies_for_organizations_n_8202_8202_17_/304757", "title"=>"Disclosure requirements and conflict of interest management strategies for organizations (n = 17).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:49:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634289"], "description"=>"<p>Each cell depicts whether or not the organization's policy met all of the criteria for each standard.</p><p>Abbreviations: COI, conflict of interest; INF, information not found; NR, not reported; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413#pone-0037413-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for abbreviations for the guideline organizations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["policies", "institute", "standards"], "article_id"=>304783, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Susan L. Norris", "Haley K. Holmer", "Brittany U. Burda", "Lauren A. Ogden", "Rongwei Fu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037413.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Organizational_policies_and_the_Institute_of_Medicine_standards_1_/304783", "title"=>"Organizational policies and the Institute of Medicine standards [1].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:49:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[335, 575, 699, 804, 900, 994, 1119, 1215, 1317, 1408, 1509, 1583, 1664, 1732, 1802, 1873, 1945, 2020, 2104, 2190, 2259, 2325, 2400, 2463, 2548]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[325, 565, 687, 787, 880, 971, 1065, 1156, 1244, 1339, 1424, 1502, 1582, 1654, 1724, 1794, 1855, 1925, 1997, 2058, 2132, 2207, 2285, 2347, 2412]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Economics", "average_usage"=>[353, 592, 730, 839, 925, 1005, 1093, 1199, 1307, 1398, 1523, 1598, 1695, 1775, 1842, 1940, 2025, 2103, 2166, 2261, 2345, 2488, 2581, 2625, 2674]}]}
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