Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body
Publication Date
May 30, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Guilherme A. R. Gualda, Ayla S. Pamukcu, Mark S. Ghiorso, Alfred T. Anderson Jr, et al
Volume
7
Issue
5
Pages
e37492
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0037492
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22666359
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364253
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22666359
Web of Science
000305353400028
Scopus
84861614794
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/timescales-quartz-crystallization-longevity-bishop-giant-magma-body
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Timescales of Quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma body", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Guilherme A.R.", "last_name"=>"Gualda", "scopus_author_id"=>"8649551000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ayla S.", "last_name"=>"Pamukcu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36873197200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark S.", "last_name"=>"Ghiorso", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004857572"}, {"first_name"=>"Alfred T.", "last_name"=>"Anderson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403369991"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen R.", "last_name"=>"Sutton", "scopus_author_id"=>"55417747500"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark L.", "last_name"=>"Rivers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006376008"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364913194", "sgr"=>"84861614794", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22666359", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861614794", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0037492"}, "id"=>"c4d2f4c1-f472-3c6f-bf03-ff3cbe1aabbd", "abstract"=>"Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/timescales-quartz-crystallization-longevity-bishop-giant-magma-body", "reader_count"=>50, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>43}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>43}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>3, "United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630926"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Quartz crystal in refractive index oil (cross-polarized light) showing several melt inclusions. (b–d) Detailed views of the three largest inclusions; scale bar is 50 µm and applies to all 3 images; area, radius (of a circle with same area), and faceting time are indicated for each inclusion. Note that (b) is non-faceted, (c) is partly faceted, and (d) is faceted. That only (d) is faceted suggests that crystal residence times are <1,500 years. Images (a–d) are from Anderson et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Anderson1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>, reproduced with permission.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inclusions", "quartz", "stages"], "article_id"=>301415, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_melt_glass_inclusions_in_quartz_at_different_stages_of_faceting_/301415", "title"=>"Examples of melt (glass) inclusions in quartz at different stages of faceting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:23:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631203"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Whole-quartz crystal size distributions for pumice from Chalfant Quarry, obtained by a crushing, sieving and winnowing procedure (data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Gualda1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>). (b) Quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions for pumice from Aeolian Buttes, obtained by x-ray tomography (data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Pamukcu1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Pamukcu2\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>). (c) 3D view of pumice chip (sample AB-6203F), showing euhedral quartz and feldspar grains (green), magnetite (blue), and pyroxene±biotite (white); notice the overall trend of decreasing numbers of crystals with increasing size; sample is approximately cylindrical, field of view ∼9 mm (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Movie S1</a> for animated version). In (a) and (b), only crystals larger than 35 µm are shown. Crystal size distributions are well-approximated by exponential distributions (dashed lines). Using growth rates of ∼10<sup>−14</sup> m/s (as calculated above), we calculate crystallization times between 430 and 2,500 years, as indicated; only maximum and minimum estimates shown. Inset in (a) shows slopes of distributions with crystallization times of 10–100,000 years (for G = 10<sup>−14</sup> m/s), demonstrating that crystallization times in excess of 10,000 years would yield effectively horizontal size distributions at the scale used, in contrast with the crystal size distributions obtained by us.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemistry", "physics"], "article_id"=>301694, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crystal_size_distributions_/301694", "title"=>"Crystal size distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:28:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326825"], "description"=>"<div><p>Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s–1000 s km<sup>3</sup>) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ∼760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500–3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["timescales", "quartz", "crystallization", "longevity", "magma"], "article_id"=>124507, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>55, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Timescales_of_Quartz_Crystallization_and_the_Longevity_of_the_Bishop_Giant_Magma_Body/124507", "title"=>"Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 01:15:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631603"], "description"=>"a<p>Quantity in brackets is the maximum residence time: t+2σ<sub>t</sub>.</p>b<p>Interior growth time excludes the time estimated for the residence time for rim-interior contacts in crystals with bright-CL, high-Ti rims (Gualda et al., unpublished data); these times are short enough that interior growth rates would be unaltered even if they were neglected.</p>c<p>Quantity in brackets is the minimum growth rate obtained using t+2σ<sub>t</sub> as time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["times", "rates", "quartz", "crystals", "shown", "derived", "ti"], "article_id"=>302087, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Residence_times_of_internal_contacts_widths_growth_times_and_growth_rates_of_selected_quartz_crystals_two_of_which_shown_in_Fig_1_as_derived_from_Ti_traverses_/302087", "title"=>"Residence times of internal contacts, widths, growth times and growth rates of selected quartz crystals (two of which shown in Fig. 1), as derived from Ti traverses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:34:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631676"], "description"=>"a<p>Approximate values.</p>b<p>Calculated using the CORBA Phase Properties applet (<a href=\"http://ctserver.ofm-research.org/phaseProp.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://ctserver.ofm-research.org/phaseProp.html</a>). Retrieved Nov 12, 2007. Calculations based on data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Berman1\" target=\"_blank\">[73]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["uncertainties", "computation", "inclusion", "faceting", "radius"], "article_id"=>302165, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_used_and_estimated_uncertainties_for_the_computation_of_melt_inclusion_faceting_time_as_a_function_of_inclusion_radius_r_/302165", "title"=>"Parameters used and estimated uncertainties for the computation of melt inclusion faceting time as a function of inclusion radius (r).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:36:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631112"], "description"=>"<p>Time required for faceting versus inclusion radius plot for conditions relevant for Bishop magma crystallization. Vertical lines correspond to inclusion sizes estimated from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone-0037492-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a>. Using our best estimate of faceting time for the observed inclusions, we constrain the timescale for residence of the host crystals to be between ∼600–1,500 years. Even if faceting is significantly slower (t+2σ<sub>t</sub> curve), residence times are within the range ∼2,200–5,300 years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inclusion", "faceting"], "article_id"=>301603, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Melt_inclusion_faceting_time_/301603", "title"=>"Melt inclusion faceting time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:26:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631639"], "description"=>"a<p>Carslaw & Jaeger <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Carslaw1\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>.</p>b<p>Whittington et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Whittington1\" target=\"_blank\">[74]</a>.</p>c<p>Rhyolite-MELTS simulations.</p>d<p>Only for Lovering-type simulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["heat-flow"], "article_id"=>302132, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_used_in_heat_flow_simulations_/302132", "title"=>"Parameters used in heat-flow simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:35:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631390"], "description"=>"<p>Initial thermal profile is a step-function, with hot (750 or 780°C) magma on the left side and cool (400°C) country-rock on the right side. We use three different analytical solutions: (a) Continuous source, in which crystallization is dispersed throughout the invariant magma, and the magma—country-rock interface is maintained at its original position; changes in the thermal properties of the magma as a function of crystallization are neglected. (b) Solidification front, in which crystallization of invariant magma takes place from the magma—country-rock-interface inward; as a limiting case, thermal properties of the solidified zone are taken to be the same as those of the liquid. (c) Lovering <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Lovering1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>, in which the specific heat of the melt (c<sub>1</sub>) is adjusted so as to simulate crystallization taking place linearly over the course of 50°C cooling; no correction is made to account for changes in thermal properties of initially molten zone as a function of crystallization. Simulation times as indicated; thermal profiles are shown every 500 years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["heat-flow", "simulations", "thermal", "km", "semi-infinite", "magma"], "article_id"=>301873, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_heat_flow_simulations_showing_the_thermal_evolution_of_a_1_km_thick_semi_infinite_magma_column_/301873", "title"=>"Results of heat-flow simulations showing the thermal evolution of a 1 km thick, semi-infinite magma column.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:31:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630792"], "description"=>"<p>(a–b) X-ray profiles and cathodoluminescence (CL) images of select quartz crystals with bright-CL, high-Ti cores; residence times and growth rates derived from Ti traverses (white lines) are presented. Analytical points shown by open symbols, including analytical uncertainties (bars). Best fit curve (Equation 1) is shown in gray, calculated so as to minimize the sum of the squares of the difference between calculated and observed values. Calculated residence times are also shown. (c) CL image detailing core-rim zoning of a large quartz crystal; image of whole crystal shown in inset. White line corresponds to the location of CL traverse displayed in the bottom, with contacts between different zones indicated in black. Residence times in years and derived growth rates indicated by numbers on top of arrows. Notice that innermost contact has residence time close to 3,000 years. Calculated growth rates for two interior zones are close to 10<sup>−14</sup> m/s, while growth rate for rim is ∼10<sup>−13</sup> m/s.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relaxation", "ti"], "article_id"=>301282, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diffusional_relaxation_of_Ti_in_quartz_/301282", "title"=>"Diffusional relaxation of Ti in quartz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:21:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631460"], "description"=>"<p>Notice the dramatic differences in behavior between the solutions for invariant magmas (Continuous Source and Solidification Front) and for non-invariant magmas (Lovering). Curves for Lovering-type crystallization are for the center and the bottom of the 1 km column. In particular, notice that significant crystallization (e.g. 25 vol. %) is attained in <1 ka for invariant magmas, in accordance with geospeedometry estimates presented in the text. Much longer timescales are required to cause significant crystallization of the interior of non-invariant magma bodies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crystallinity", "solutions", "presented", "discussed"], "article_id"=>301948, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evolution_of_crystallinity_with_time_for_the_three_solutions_presented_in_Fig_7_and_discussed_in_the_text_/301948", "title"=>"Evolution of crystallinity with time for the three solutions presented in Fig. 7 and discussed in the text.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:32:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631040"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Shape change of a melt inclusion inside a host crystal as a function of time due to faceting; initial inclusion is spherical, but with time gets transformed into a polyhedron with rounded edges; with sufficient time, inclusion may become a perfect anticrystal. (b) Evolution of shapes emphasizing the role of diffusion (green arrows) in transporting material to achieve faceting.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inclusion"], "article_id"=>301532, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shape_evolution_due_to_melt_inclusion_faceting_/301532", "title"=>"Shape evolution due to melt inclusion faceting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:25:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631288"], "description"=>"<p>Temperature (°C) versus enthalpy change (J/g; top panel) and versus abundance (wt. %; bottom panel) plot shows results of MELTS <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Ghiorso1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Gualda4\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a> simulations. Initial composition is average late-erupted pumice composition from Hildreth <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Hildreth1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>. Simulation assumes equilibrium crystallization at 175 MPa, under fluid-saturated conditions (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Gualda4\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>), in agreement with melt inclusion data <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Anderson1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492#pone.0037492-Wallace1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>. Note short crystallization interval (<10°C). Nearly invariant condition is reached at 756.1°C when the system becomes saturated in quartz (in addition to fluid, sanidine, magnetite, and plagioclase), after which point crystallization is nearly isothermal. Quartz crystallization effectively locks the system at the nearly invariant temperature, given that, upon heating, temperature excursions above the nearly invariant temperature are only possible after complete resorption of quartz.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modeling"], "article_id"=>301778, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Guilherme A. R. Gualda", "Ayla S. Pamukcu", "Mark S. Ghiorso", "Alfred T. Anderson Jr", "Stephen R. Sutton", "Mark L. Rivers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037492.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thermodynamic_and_heat_flow_modeling_results_/301778", "title"=>"Thermodynamic and heat flow modeling results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:29:38"}

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