Complexity of the International Agro-Food Trade Network and Its Impact on Food Safety
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{"title"=>"Complexity of the international agro-food trade network and its impact on food safety", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mária", "last_name"=>"Ercsey-Ravasz", "scopus_author_id"=>"14015425000"}, {"first_name"=>"Zoltán", "last_name"=>"Toroczkai", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003723110"}, {"first_name"=>"Zoltán", "last_name"=>"Lakner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506033503"}, {"first_name"=>"József", "last_name"=>"Baranyi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003647283"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861702402", "sgr"=>"84861702402", "pui"=>"364923361", "pmid"=>"22701535", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0037810"}, "id"=>"f8cd2239-4efb-3432-b58e-f36b1e31b2a0", "abstract"=>"With the world’s population now in excess of 7 billion, it is vital to ensure the chemical and microbiological safety of our food, while maintaining the sustainability of its production, distribution and trade. Using UN databases, here we show that the international agro-food trade network (IFTN), with nodes and edges representing countries and import-export fluxes, respectively, has evolved into a highly heterogeneous, complex supply-chain network. Seven countries form the core of the IFTN, with high values of betweenness centrality and each trading with over 77% of all the countries in the world. Graph theoretical analysis and a dynamic food flux model show that the IFTN provides a vehicle suitable for the fast distribution of potential contaminants but unsuitable for tracing their origin. In particular, we show that high values of node betweenness and vulnerability correlate well with recorded large food poisoning outbreaks.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/complexity-international-agrofood-trade-network-impact-food-safety", "reader_count"=>137, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>11, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>10, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>19, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Physics and Astronomy"=>7, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>19}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>11}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Mexico"=>4, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629474"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) (Log-linear scale). The world’s food production (thin red line), measured in current Billion US$, doubles in ca. 30 years, while the amount of food transported on the IFTN (linearly fitted small squares, blue) increases by ca. 10-fold in the same time. (<b>B</b>) (Linear scale). Food ingredients flow at an increasing rate from countries to countries, as shown by the exponentially increasing [world export]/[world production] ratio calculated from the above data (small squares fitted by an exponential curve). Note that this ratio is unaffected by the US$ inflation rate. Data obtained from UN databases <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-ComTrade1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-FAOSTAT2\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grows"], "article_id"=>299966, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Maria Ercsey-Ravasz", "Zoltán Toroczkai", "Zoltán Lakner", "József Baranyi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_world_8217_s_food_trade_grows_faster_than_the_food_production_/299966", "title"=>"The world’s food trade grows faster than the food production.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:23:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629573"], "description"=>"<p>The IFTN is based on reported export, involving N = 207 countries (nodes) drawn as disks and M = 10645 trade fluxes (those worth more than 1 million US$), drawn as directed edges/links. The top 44 countries with the largest total trade activity (import+export) and the top 300 largest food-trade fluxes were colored according to their betweenness values (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). The rest of the countries and edges are drawn with gray. The sizes of the colored disks are proportional to the logarithm of their total trade activity, ln(<i>E<sub>i</sub>+I<sub>i</sub></i>). The thickness of the directed links is proportional to the log value of the trade flux in that direction, ln(<i>Φ<sub>ij</sub></i>). The structure of the IFTN was similar throughout 1998–2008.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agro-food"], "article_id"=>300067, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Maria Ercsey-Ravasz", "Zoltán Toroczkai", "Zoltán Lakner", "József Baranyi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_complete_International_Agro_Food_Trade_Network_in_1998_/300067", "title"=>"The complete International Agro-Food Trade Network in 1998.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:24:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629875"], "description"=>"<p>The backbone is formed by the top 44 nodes (countries) with the largest total trade activity (import+export). Nodes and edges are both colored by their betweenness values; the thickness of the directed edges is proportional to the natural logarithm of the trade value in that direction, as in Fig. 2. The size of a node, in this figure, is proportional to the logarithm of the <i>per capita</i> trade activity, <i>i.e.</i> ln[(<i>E<sub>i</sub></i>+<i>I<sub>i</sub></i>)/<i>Π<sub>i</sub></i>] where <i>Π<sub>i</sub></i> is the population size of the country <i>i</i>. Countries are labeled by their 3-letter ISO 3166 codes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["backbone", "iftn", "2007"], "article_id"=>300367, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Maria Ercsey-Ravasz", "Zoltán Toroczkai", "Zoltán Lakner", "József Baranyi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_backbone_of_the_IFTN_based_on_the_2007_dataset_/300367", "title"=>"The backbone of the IFTN based on the 2007 dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:26:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630004"], "description"=>"<p>Country <i>i</i> with population of <i>P<sub>i</sub></i> has a total yearly agro-food import <i>I<sub>i</sub></i> , out of which <i>r<sub>i</sub>I<sub>i</sub></i> is exported, and (1<i>-r<sub>i</sub></i>)<i>I<sub>i</sub></i> is consumed locally. A specific food ingredient to be tracked is produced in this country in the value of <i>P<sub>i</sub></i> from which <i>P<sub>i</sub><sup>(out)</sup></i> will be included into its total export <i>E<sub>i</sub></i> , while <i>P<sub>i</sub><sup>(in)</sup></i> is consumed locally. The parameter <i>c</i> represents the average value (in US$) of the food consumed by a person in a year.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flux"], "article_id"=>300505, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Maria Ercsey-Ravasz", "Zoltán Toroczkai", "Zoltán Lakner", "József Baranyi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematics_for_the_Food_Flux_Model_/300505", "title"=>"Schematics for the Food Flux Model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:26:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630071"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Evolution of the contamination impact <i>R<sub>s</sub></i>(<i>n</i>) and <b>(B)</b> vulnerability <i>V<sub>i</sub></i>(<i>n</i>), for the top 14 countries as function of the export steps, <i>n</i>. <b>(C)</b> “Vulnerability <i>vs.</i> betweenness” scatter plot for the 44 countries with the largest trade activity. Countries with significant food poisoning cases in the last 15 years are indicated by encircled symbols. In particular: the 2011 <i>Listeria</i> outbreak in the USA, from produce, causing 29 deaths <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-Centers1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>; the 2011 <i>E. coli</i> outbreak in Germany, from red beet sprout, with 46 deaths and 4000 diagnosed cases <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-Kupferschmidt1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>; the <i>Salmonella</i> outbreak in 2005 in The Netherlands with 165 diagnosed cases <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-Kivi1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>; the 1996 <i>E. coli</i> outbreak in the UK with 512 confirmed cases, 17 deaths <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-Cowden1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>; the 2008 <i>Listeria</i> outbreak in Canada with 57 diagnosed cases and 27 deaths <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-Ontario1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>; the 1996 <i>E. coli</i> outbreak in Japan, from radish sprout, with 2 infant deaths and more than 5000 hospitalized <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810#pone.0037810-National1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flux"], "article_id"=>300567, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Maria Ercsey-Ravasz", "Zoltán Toroczkai", "Zoltán Lakner", "József Baranyi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spread_analysis_based_on_the_Food_Flux_Model_/300567", "title"=>"Spread analysis based on the Food Flux Model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:27:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629688"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Histogram of fluxes (blue bars) fitted by a lognormal distribution (solid continuous line). The parameters of the fitted distribution for ln<i>Φ</i> are <i>μ</i> = 7.68 (mean) and <i>σ</i> = 3.42 (standard deviation). The flux <i>Φ</i> is expressed in thousand US$ units. (<b>B</b>) Histogram of the betweenness centrality values of nodes and (<b>C</b>) edges. (<b>D</b>) A scatter-plot of degree <i>vs.</i> betweenness for every country. The figures represent the 2007 dataset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["properties"], "article_id"=>300182, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Maria Ercsey-Ravasz", "Zoltán Toroczkai", "Zoltán Lakner", "József Baranyi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_properties_of_the_IFTN_/300182", "title"=>"Structural properties of the IFTN.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630179"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters used for the simulation: <i>β</i> = 0.001 and <i>n</i> = 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contamination", "respective", "source-target", "pairs", "2007", "dataset", "flux"], "article_id"=>300662, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Maria Ercsey-Ravasz", "Zoltán Toroczkai", "Zoltán Lakner", "József Baranyi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037810.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Largest_D_t_s_n_contamination_values_and_the_respective_source_target_pairs_using_the_2007_dataset_in_the_Food_Flux_Model_/300662", "title"=>"Largest <i>D<sub>t|s</sub></i>(<i>n</i>) contamination values and the respective source-target pairs using the 2007 dataset in the Food Flux Model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:27:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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