Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges
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{"title"=>"Rapid inversion: Running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jean Michel", "last_name"=>"Mongeau", "scopus_author_id"=>"55246896200"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"McRae", "scopus_author_id"=>"55246667800"}, {"first_name"=>"Ardian", "last_name"=>"Jusufi", "scopus_author_id"=>"24067050100"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Birkmeyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"35408485200"}, {"first_name"=>"Aaron M.", "last_name"=>"Hoover", "scopus_author_id"=>"23008673700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronald", "last_name"=>"Fearing", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004262672"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert J.", "last_name"=>"Full", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003993278"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862001933", "sgr"=>"84862001933", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038003", "pmid"=>"22701594", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"364979234"}, "id"=>"249bc2e2-5bb6-3bfe-b806-70eb5e657e96", "abstract"=>"Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rapid-inversion-running-animals-robots-swing-like-pendulum-under-ledges", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>23, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>23}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Thailand"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325626", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325680", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325720", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325769", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325801", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325841", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325876"], "description"=>"<div><p>Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["animals", "robots", "pendulum", "ledges"], "article_id"=>124275, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jean-Michel Mongeau", "Brian McRae", "Ardian Jusufi", "Paul Birkmeyer", "Aaron M. Hoover", "Ronald Fearing", "Robert J. Full"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Rapid_Inversion_Running_Animals_and_Robots_Swing_like_a_Pendulum_under_Ledges/124275", "title"=>"Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 01:11:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627563"], "description"=>"<p>Panel (<i>a</i>) compares a pendulum model without transfer of kinetic energy (KE = 0; grey bob) and with complete transfer of kinetic energy (KE>0; magenta bob) to the animal and robot trajectories as a function of time (ms) from representative position data from the COM of the cockroach (red), gecko (green), and robot (blue). The pendulum base joint represents the average position of the feet during the maneuver. The cockroach and gecko started swinging at an angle of approximately 30 degrees from the body long axis relative to the horizontal, whereas the robot initiated swinging near the horizontal relative to the body long axis (0 degree). Panel (<i>b</i>) shows the change in angle relative to the initial angle at the start of the swing for animals and robot compared to our two models. Panel (<i>c</i>) shows the speed of the animals and robot. The grey area represents the period of swinging defined as the point of slowest speed following foot engagement until all legs contacted the underside of the ledge. Panel (<i>d</i>) shows the position of the COM of the animals and robot during the complete rapid inversion maneuver for a representative trial. Arrows indicate the resultant velocity vectors (m s<sup>–1</sup>) at intervals of 20 ms. The black open circle indicates the region where the speed is slowest. Panel (<i>e</i>) shows the corresponding energy profiles. The grey area represents the same period as defined in (<i>c</i>) above. The dashed curve in magenta shows the total kinetic energy for the pendulum model if transfer were complete.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kinematics", "pendulum"], "article_id"=>298052, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jean-Michel Mongeau", "Brian McRae", "Ardian Jusufi", "Paul Birkmeyer", "Aaron M. Hoover", "Ronald Fearing", "Robert J. Full"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparisons_of_animal_and_robot_kinematics_to_a_pendulum_model_/298052", "title"=>"Comparisons of animal and robot kinematics to a pendulum model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627155"], "description"=>"<p>Panels (<i>a</i>) and (<i>b</i>) show a high-speed 180-degree inversion behavior on an incline for cockroaches, <i>P. americana</i> and house geckos, <i>H. platyurus</i>, respectively. Panel (<i>c</i>) shows a cockroach-inspired hexapedal robot, DASH, successfully performing a similar maneuver from a horizontal platform with small Velcro hooks attached at the end of the hind legs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inversion"], "article_id"=>297649, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jean-Michel Mongeau", "Brian McRae", "Ardian Jusufi", "Paul Birkmeyer", "Aaron M. Hoover", "Ronald Fearing", "Robert J. Full"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sequence_of_rapid_inversion_behavior_in_a_cockroach_gecko_and_a_robot_prototype_/297649", "title"=>"Sequence of rapid inversion behavior in a cockroach, gecko, and a robot prototype.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:07:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627304"], "description"=>"<p>In the top left panel (<i>a</i>) a representative pendulum-like model of the inversion behavior is shown swinging from rest until it contacts the underside of the ledge. The red circle represents the rostral or head position. In the bottom left panel (<i>b</i>), we plotted position data of the rostral region of the animals and robot with the initial position centered at the origin. In the three panels at the right, head speed data for the cockroach (<i>c</i>), gecko (<i>d</i>) and robot (<i>e</i>) are plotted as a function of scaled time (% cycle) to compare the speed profile across trials and animals. Bold thick lines show the average speed, whereas light thick ones show ±1 standard deviation. Thin lines in the background show the individual trial data for the animals and robot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inversion", "animals"], "article_id"=>297795, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jean-Michel Mongeau", "Brian McRae", "Ardian Jusufi", "Paul Birkmeyer", "Aaron M. Hoover", "Ronald Fearing", "Robert J. Full"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinematics_of_rapid_inversion_for_animals_and_robot_/297795", "title"=>"Kinematics of rapid inversion for animals and robot.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:09:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627469"], "description"=>"<p>The two panels show a sequence of the inversion behavior from the top (<i>a</i>) and bottom (<i>b</i>) of a fern leaf recorded in the field with high-speed videography. After moving over the robust parts of the fern leaf with a rigid midrib beneath that supported their body weight, the gecko engaged its claws near the tip of the leaf and performed a pendulum-like swing towards the underside.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rainforests"], "article_id"=>297961, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jean-Michel Mongeau", "Brian McRae", "Ardian Jusufi", "Paul Birkmeyer", "Aaron M. Hoover", "Ronald Fearing", "Robert J. Full"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038003.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flat_tailed_house_gecko_H_platyurus_in_its_native_environment_in_the_rainforests_of_Singapore_/297961", "title"=>"Flat-tailed house gecko, <i>H. platyurus</i> in its native environment in the rainforests of Singapore.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:12:41"}

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Relative Metric

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