The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles
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{"title"=>"The life cycle and life span of Namibian fairy circles", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Walter R.", "last_name"=>"Tschinkel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003279967"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84862976190", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038056", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365122052", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22761663", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862976190"}, "id"=>"453a8edc-6cd5-331c-8e10-1a105e86adf8", "abstract"=>"In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called ‘‘fairy circles’’ are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/life-cycle-life-span-namibian-fairy-circles", "reader_count"=>69, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Mathematics"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>32, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>32}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618087"], "description"=>"<p>The Namib Rand region showing the locations of groups of “sold” fairy circles used to estimate circle lifespans.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["namib", "rand", "locations", "groups", "fairy", "circles"], "article_id"=>288577, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Namib_Rand_region_showing_the_locations_of_groups_of_8220_sold_8221_fairy_circles_used_to_estimate_circle_lifespans_/288577", "title"=>"The Namib Rand region showing the locations of groups of “sold” fairy circles used to estimate circle lifespans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:21:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/619519"], "description"=>"<p>Panels A-O show the variation of circle morphology, density and size. See text for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["selections", "google", "namib", "rand"], "article_id"=>290018, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detailed_selections_from_the_Google_Earth_image_of_the_Namib_Rand_Nature_Reserve_region_/290018", "title"=>"Detailed selections from the Google Earth image of the Namib Rand Nature Reserve region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:29:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/619202"], "description"=>"<p>A. Google Earth image of July 8, 2010; B. Same area in a low altitude aerial view taken November 2011, showing new fairy circles (central region) forming in a grass matrix. Photograph courtesy of Denis Hesemans of Namib Sky Balloon Safaris.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology"], "article_id"=>289699, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_New_circle_formation_/289699", "title"=>"New circle formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:27:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618280"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in the 2008 images indicate circles not present in 2004, i.e. new circles. Panels H and I also each contain two unnumbered circles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "2004", "2008", "fairy", "checking"], "article_id"=>288772, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satellite_images_from_2004_and_2008_showing_the_appearance_birth_of_fairy_circles_and_their_condition_upon_ground_checking_in_2009_/288772", "title"=>"Satellite images from 2004 and 2008 showing the appearance (birth) of fairy circles, and their condition upon ground checking in 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:22:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/619721"], "description"=>"<p>Differences between them allowed the calculation of turnover rates and circle lifespan (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samples", "taken", "2004", "2008", "images"], "article_id"=>290213, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_the_samples_taken_from_the_2004_and_2008_images_used_for_detailed_comparison_of_the_two_years_/290213", "title"=>"Location of the samples taken from the 2004 and 2008 images used for detailed comparison of the two years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:30:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/617633"], "description"=>"<p>Inset shows the location of Namibia in Africa, and the Namib Rand Nature Reserve (NRNR) in Namibia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2004", "2008", "photographs"], "article_id"=>288134, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Google_Earth_image_showing_the_location_of_the_2004_and_2008_satellite_photographs_used_in_this_study_/288134", "title"=>"Google Earth image showing the location of the 2004 and 2008 satellite photographs used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:18:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618602"], "description"=>"<p>The satellite images within each row are the same scale, but the scale varies by row. Each focal circle is identified by number in the photographs on the right and in the satellite images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "2004", "2008", "fairy", "circles", "grew", "checking"], "article_id"=>289095, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satellite_images_from_2004_and_2008_showing_fairy_circles_that_grew_in_size_and_the_condition_of_one_of_them_upon_ground_checking_in_2009_/289095", "title"=>"Satellite images from 2004 and 2008 showing fairy circles that grew in size, and the condition of one of them upon ground checking in 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:24:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618446"], "description"=>"<p>Circles of easily recognizable outline were chosen to show that they change little or not at all. The dark pixels are the tall grass around the circle margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fairy", "perimeters", "2004", "2008"], "article_id"=>288939, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_fairy_circle_perimeters_at_high_contrast_in_2004_and_2008_satellite_images_/288939", "title"=>"Comparison of fairy circle perimeters at high contrast in 2004 and 2008 satellite images.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:23:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618922"], "description"=>"<p>Condition is shown in 2004, 2008 and upon ground checking in 2009. The satellite images within each row are the same scale, but the scale varies by row. Each focal circle is identified by number in the photographs on the right and in the satellite images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["circles", "appeared", "revegetated", "persistent"], "article_id"=>289420, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_ghosts_that_is_circles_that_appeared_revegetated_in_both_years_but_were_detected_by_the_persistent_ring_of_tall_grass_/289420", "title"=>"Examples of ghosts, that is, circles that appeared revegetated in both years, but were detected by the persistent ring of tall grass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:26:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/619389"], "description"=>"<p>A. Note circle of grey, dying and collapsed grass in the upper panel, and B. its substantial disappearance in the lower panel. C. Excerpt from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056#pone-0038056-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 10</a>B showing aerial view of newly forming fairy circles. Photographs courtesy of Denis Hesemans of Namib Sky Balloon Safaris.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["forming", "fairy", "circles"], "article_id"=>289890, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Newly_forming_fairy_circles_in_a_grass_matrix_/289890", "title"=>"Newly forming fairy circles in a grass matrix.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:28:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/619919"], "description"=>"<p>The circles indicated by the arrows were ground checked.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["formed", "sparse", "making"], "article_id"=>290418, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Circles_sometimes_lack_the_rim_of_tall_grass_and_are_formed_in_very_sparse_grass_matrix_making_them_difficult_to_see_in_satellite_images_/290418", "title"=>"Circles sometimes lack the rim of tall grass and are formed in very sparse grass matrix, making them difficult to see in satellite images.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:31:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/617845"], "description"=>"<p>Fairy circles are clearly visible. The inset in the lower right corner shows a section at a larger scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2004", "2008", "images", "covering"], "article_id"=>288341, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_section_of_the_2004_and_2008_satellite_images_covering_much_of_the_study_area_/288341", "title"=>"A section of the 2004 and 2008 satellite images covering much of the study area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:19:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/620066"], "description"=>"<p>Blue symbols were derived from the Google Earth selections in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056#pone-0038056-g011\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 11</a> and are labeled with the same letters as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056#pone-0038056-g011\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 11</a>. Bars are 95% confidence intervals. The red symbols are values for the selections from the 2008 satellite image used for calculating life span. Because of the large number of circles in these samples, confidence intervals were too small to show. Symbol size of both colors indicates the density of circles (see legend at upper left).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["percent", "was", "circles", "changed", "independently"], "article_id"=>290562, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_percent_of_a_site_that_was_bare_soil_within_circles_increased_with_circle_density_as_well_as_with_mean_circle_area_but_density_and_area_changed_independently_of_each_other_/290562", "title"=>"The percent of a site that was bare soil within circles increased with circle density as well as with mean circle area, but density and area changed independently of each other.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:32:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618378"], "description"=>"<p>No specific images of other circles were made. The left and right satellite images within each row are the same scale, but the scale varies by row.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "2004", "2008", "fairy", "circles", "did", "checking"], "article_id"=>288870, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satellite_images_from_2004_and_2008_showing_fairy_circles_that_did_not_change_and_their_condition_of_one_of_them_upon_ground_checking_in_2009_/288870", "title"=>"Satellite images from 2004 and 2008 showing fairy circles that did not change, and their condition of one of them upon ground checking in 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:22:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618757"], "description"=>"<p>Additional satellite image circles are also shown without ground checked images. The satellite images within each row are the same scale, but the scale varies by row. Each focal circle is identified by number in the photographs on the right and in the satellite images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "2004", "2008", "fairy", "circles", "revegetated", "checking"], "article_id"=>289247, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Walter R. Tschinkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038056.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satellite_images_from_2004_and_2008_showing_fairy_circles_that_were_revegetated_died_and_their_condition_upon_ground_checking_in_2009_/289247", "title"=>"Satellite images from 2004 and 2008 showing fairy circles that were revegetated (died), and their condition upon ground checking in 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:25:08"}

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Relative Metric

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