Comparing the Invasibility of Experimental “Reefs” with Field Observations of Natural Reefs and Artificial Structures
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{"title"=>"Comparing the invasibility of experimental \"reefs\" with field observations of natural reefs and artificial structures", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Katherine A.", "last_name"=>"Dafforn", "scopus_author_id"=>"24334916100"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim M.", "last_name"=>"Glasby", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603706015"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma L.", "last_name"=>"Johnston", "scopus_author_id"=>"56271208800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22666459", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038124", "sgr"=>"84861624873", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861624873", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364913236"}, "id"=>"76344ac7-92bf-34e1-91be-f1866d2ee445", "abstract"=>"Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental ‘reefs’ and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native) appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation) and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when non-indigenous invertebrates invade vertical ‘‘reefs’’, they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability). Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that non-indigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance) on experimental ‘‘reefs’’ explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparing-invasibility-experimental-reefs-field-observations-natural-reefs-artificial-structures", "reader_count"=>94, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>24, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>24}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Mexico"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630995"], "description"=>"<p>(a, b) non-indigenous invertebrates and (c, d ) native invertebrates were sampled on experimentally deployed sandstone plates. Bars are separated by orientation (horizontal or vertical) and assemblage (new or established) and coded for shading treatment (unshaded, shade control or shaded).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["covers", "richness", "invertebrates", "sampled"], "article_id"=>301485, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_covers_and_richness_of_invertebrates_sampled_on_experimental_8220_reef_8221_/301485", "title"=>"Percent covers and richness of invertebrates sampled on experimental “reef”.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:24:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631444"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous algal e) percent cover and f) species richness, native algal g) percent cover and h) species richness compared between the vertical surfaces of artificial and natural structures. Habitat was the factor of interest in the comparisons and the direction of difference indicated in the left column. The sites and years at which these patterns occurred are indicated in the right column. Habitat  =  Pi (piling), Po (pontoon), Re (reef).Sites  =  BA (Balmain), CL (Clontarf), GB (Gore Bay) and FT (Fig Tree). Years  = 06 (2006) and 07 (2007).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparisons", "non-indigenous", "algal", "percent", "richness", "sampled"], "article_id"=>301932, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_comparisons_of_the_non_indigenous_and_native_algal_species_percent_cover_and_richness_sampled_from_artificial_and_natural_habitats_/301932", "title"=>"Pairwise comparisons of the non-indigenous and native algal species percent cover and richness sampled from artificial and natural habitats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:32:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630819"], "description"=>"<p>Points are are separated by a) resident assemblage (new or established), b) orientation (horizontal or vertical), and c) shading treatment (unshaded/shade control or shaded). The vector overlay indicates which taxa were positively correlated (>0.4) with the axes and the length of the vector indicates the strength of the relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["co-ordinates", "comparing", "hard-substrate"], "article_id"=>301309, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>79, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_co_ordinates_analysis_PCO_comparing_the_hard_substrate_community_composition_on_experimental_8220_reef_8221_sandstone_plates_/301309", "title"=>"Principal co-ordinates analysis (PCO) comparing the hard-substrate community composition on experimental “reef” (sandstone plates).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:21:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631338"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Sediment (g/dry weight) was collected from individual plates prior to final collection of plates and (b) light (lux) was sampled above the plates with loggers for 28 days during the experiment. The averages are presented for each measure and bars are separated by (a) orientation (horizontal or vertical) and assemblage (new or established) and (a/b) coded for shading treatment (unshaded, shade control or shaded).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deployment"], "article_id"=>301832, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sediment_and_light_intensity_collected_during_deployment_of_experimental_8220_reef_8221_/301832", "title"=>"Sediment and light intensity collected during deployment of experimental “reef”.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:30:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630421"], "description"=>"<p>Sampling was done on vertical surfaces of pilings, pontoons and rocky reefs at four sites in 2006 and 2007. The PCO plot (a) is coded by habitat and the vector overlay (b) indicates which taxa were positively correlated (>0.4) with the axes. The length of the vector indicates the strength of the relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["co-ordinates", "comparing", "hard-substrate"], "article_id"=>300917, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_co_ordinates_analysis_PCO_comparing_the_hard_substrate_community_composition_between_artificial_and_natural_habitats_/300917", "title"=>"Principal co-ordinates analysis (PCO) comparing the hard-substrate community composition between artificial and natural habitats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:15:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631548"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous invertebrate a) percent cover and b) species richness, native invertebrate c) percent cover and d) species richness compared between vertical surfaces of artificial (pilings and pontoons) and natural (reef) habitats. Habitats were sampled at twice at 4 sites. Significant results (p<0.05) are indicated in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "non-indigenous", "invertebrate", "percent", "richness", "sampled"], "article_id"=>302040, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PERMANOVA_results_comparing_non_indigenous_and_native_invertebrate_species_percent_cover_and_richness_sampled_from_artificial_and_natural_habitats_/302040", "title"=>"PERMANOVA results comparing non-indigenous and native invertebrate species percent cover and richness sampled from artificial and natural habitats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:34:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630696"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous algae sampled from (a, e) vertical surfaces of habitats and (b, f) horizontal reef and native algae sampled from (c, g) vertical surfaces of habitats and (d, h) horizontal reef. In-situ sampling was conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007. Individual bars represent sites ordered BA, FT, GB and CL from left to right. Sampling years (06/07) are indicated above the bars. Percent covers for horizontal reef were sampled in a separate survey at three sites at five sampling times (Jan 07, Apr 07, Sep 07, Mar 08, Jun 08). Individual bars represent sites ordered BA, FT, GB from left to right for each sampling time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "algae", "sampled", "surfaces", "habitats", "horizontal"], "article_id"=>301186, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_cover_and_richness_of_algae_sampled_on_vertical_surfaces_of_artificial_and_natural_habitats_and_horizontal_reef_/301186", "title"=>"Percent cover and richness of algae sampled on vertical surfaces of artificial and natural habitats and horizontal reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:19:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631479"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous invertebrate a) percent cover and b) species richness, native invertebrate c) percent cover and d) species richness, and e) native algal percent cover and species richness. Analyses compared new and established assemblages on sandstone plates that were either oriented vertically or horizontally and subject to different shading treatments. Analyses were not conducted on non-indigenous algae because of low covers. Plates were collected and censused after 32 weeks. Significant results (p<0.05) are indicated in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "non-indigenous", "percent", "richness", "sampled"], "article_id"=>301969, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PERMANOVA_results_comparing_the_non_indigenous_and_native_species_percent_cover_and_richness_sampled_from_experimental_8220_reef_8221_sandstone_plates_/301969", "title"=>"PERMANOVA results comparing the non-indigenous and native species percent cover and richness sampled from experimental “reef” (sandstone plates).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:32:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631585"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous invertebrate a) percent cover and b) species richness, native invertebrate c) percent cover and d) species richness compared between the vertical surfaces of artificial and natural structures. Habitat was the factor of interest in the comparisons and the direction of difference indicated in the left column. The sites and years at which these patterns occurred are indicated in the right column. Habitat  =  Pi (piling), Po (pontoon), Re (reef). Sites  =  BA (Balmain), CL (Clontarf), GB (Gore Bay) and FT (Fig Tree). Years  = 06 (2006) and 07 (2007).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparisons", "non-indigenous", "invertebrate", "percent", "richness", "sampled"], "article_id"=>302072, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_comparisons_of_the_non_indigenous_and_native_invertebrate_species_percent_cover_and_richness_sampled_from_artificial_and_natural_habitats_/302072", "title"=>"Pairwise comparisons of the non-indigenous and native invertebrate species percent cover and richness sampled from artificial and natural habitats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:34:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630310"], "description"=>"<p>Sites were sampled in an <i>in-situ</i> underwater survey of vertical surfaces of artificial and natural habitats (BA, FT, GB and CL), photoquadrats of horizontal reef (BA, FT, GB) and sandstone plate deployment (FT). BA  =  Balmain, FT  =  Fig Tree, GB  =  Gore Bay and CL  =  Clontarf.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites"], "article_id"=>300810, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_sites_in_Port_Jackson_Australia_/300810", "title"=>"Study sites in Port Jackson, Australia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:13:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329068", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329135", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329284"], "description"=>"<div><p>Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental ‘reefs’ and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native) appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation) and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when non-indigenous invertebrates invade vertical “reefs”, they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability). Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that non-indigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance) on experimental “reefs” explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "invasibility", "observations", "reefs", "structures"], "article_id"=>124984, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparing_the_Invasibility_of_Experimental_Reefs_with_Field_Observations_of_Natural_Reefs_and_Artificial_Structures/124984", "title"=>"Comparing the Invasibility of Experimental “Reefs” with Field Observations of Natural Reefs and Artificial Structures", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 01:23:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631177"], "description"=>"<p>(a, b) non-indigenous algae and (c, d) native algae were sampled on experimentally deployed sandstone plates. Bars are separated by orientation (horizontal or vertical) and assemblage (new or established) and coded for shading treatment (unshaded, shade control or shaded).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["covers", "richness", "algae", "sampled"], "article_id"=>301668, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_covers_and_richness_of_algae_sampled_on_experimental_8220_reef_8221_/301668", "title"=>"Percent covers and richness of algae sampled on experimental “reef”.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:27:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630534"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous invertebrates were sampled from (a, e) vertical surfaces of habitats and (b, f) horizontal reef, native invertebrates were sampled from (c, g) vertical surfaces of habitats and (d, h) horizontal reef. In-situ sampling was conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007. Individual bars represent sites ordered BA, FT, GB and CL from left to right. Sampling years (06/07) are indicated above the bars. Percent covers for horizontal reef were sampled in a separate survey at three sites at five sampling times (Jan 07, Apr 07, Sep 07, Mar 08, Jun 08). Individual bars represent sites ordered BA, FT, GB from left to right for each sampling time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "invertebrates", "sampled", "surfaces", "habitats", "horizontal"], "article_id"=>301025, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_cover_and_richness_of_invertebrates_sampled_on_vertical_surfaces_of_artificial_and_natural_habitats_and_horizontal_reef_/301025", "title"=>"Percent cover and richness of invertebrates sampled on vertical surfaces of artificial and natural habitats and horizontal reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:17:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631513"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous invertebrate a) percent cover and b) species richness, native invertebrate c) percent cover and d) species richness, and e) native algal percent cover and species richness. Analyses compared new and established assemblages on sandstone plates that were either oriented vertically or horizontally and subject to different shading treatments. Where an interaction term was significant, the assemblages, orientations or shading treatments for which these patterns were significant are indicated in the right column.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparisons", "non-indigenous", "percent", "richness", "sampled"], "article_id"=>302002, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_comparisons_of_the_non_indigenous_and_native_species_percent_cover_and_richness_sampled_from_experimental_8220_reef_8221_sandstone_plates_/302002", "title"=>"Pairwise comparisons of the non-indigenous and native species percent cover and richness sampled from experimental “reef” (sandstone plates).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:33:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/631622"], "description"=>"<p>Non-indigenous algal e) percent cover and f) species richness, native algal g) percent cover and h) species richness compared between vertical surfaces of artificial (pilings and pontoons) and natural (reef) habitats. Habitats were sampled at twice at 4 sites. Significant results (p<0.05) are indicated in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "non-indigenous", "algal", "percent", "richness", "sampled"], "article_id"=>302111, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Katherine A. Dafforn", "Tim M. Glasby", "Emma L. Johnston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038124.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PERMANOVA_results_comparing_non_indigenous_and_native_algal_species_percent_cover_and_richness_sampled_from_artificial_and_natural_habitats_/302111", "title"=>"PERMANOVA results comparing non-indigenous and native algal species percent cover and richness sampled from artificial and natural habitats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:35:11"}

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