A LOV Protein Modulates the Physiological Attributes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Relevant for Host Plant Colonization
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{"title"=>"A LOV protein modulates the physiological attributes of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri relevant for host plant colonization", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ivana", "last_name"=>"Kraiselburd", "scopus_author_id"=>"55241629900"}, {"first_name"=>"Analía I.", "last_name"=>"Alet", "scopus_author_id"=>"37110663400"}, {"first_name"=>"María Laura", "last_name"=>"Tondo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55385895800"}, {"first_name"=>"Silvana", "last_name"=>"Petrocelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"36458718100"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucas D.", "last_name"=>"Daurelio", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505892657"}, {"first_name"=>"Jesica", "last_name"=>"Monzón", "scopus_author_id"=>"55242054200"}, {"first_name"=>"Oscar A.", "last_name"=>"Ruiz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005853094"}, {"first_name"=>"Aba", "last_name"=>"Losi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55815516100"}, {"first_name"=>"Elena G.", "last_name"=>"Orellano", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602183043"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22675525", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038226", "pui"=>"364955372", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84861845108", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861845108"}, "id"=>"bf4aa6c6-dcfa-3376-acc4-d3943f93c6f0", "abstract"=>"Recent studies have demonstrated that an appropriate light environment is required for the establishment of efficient vegetal resistance responses in several plant-pathogen interactions. The photoreceptors implicated in such responses are mainly those belonging to the phytochrome family. Data obtained from bacterial genome sequences revealed the presence of photosensory proteins of the BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using FAD), LOV (Light, Oxygen, Voltage) and phytochrome families with no known functions. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for citrus canker. The in silico analysis of the X. axonopodis pv. citri genome sequence revealed the presence of a gene encoding a putative LOV photoreceptor, in addition to two genes encoding BLUF proteins. This suggests that blue light sensing could play a role in X. axonopodis pv. citri physiology. We obtained the recombinant Xac-LOV protein by expression in Escherichia coli and performed a spectroscopic analysis of the purified protein, which demonstrated that it has a canonical LOV photochemistry. We also constructed a mutant strain of X. axonopodis pv. citri lacking the LOV protein and found that the loss of this protein altered bacterial motility, exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. Moreover, we observed that the adhesion of the mutant strain to abiotic and biotic surfaces was significantly diminished compared to the wild-type. Finally, inoculation of orange (Citrus sinensis) leaves with the mutant strain of X. axonopodis pv. citri resulted in marked differences in the development of symptoms in plant tissues relative to the wild-type, suggesting a role for the Xac-LOV protein in the pathogenic process. Altogether, these results suggest the novel involvement of a photosensory system in the regulation of physiological attributes of a phytopathogenic bacterium. A functional blue light receptor in Xanthomonas spp. has been described for the first time, showing an important role in virulence during citrus canker disease.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lov-protein-modulates-physiological-attributes-xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-citri-relevant-host-plant-c", "reader_count"=>41, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>1, "France"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629703"], "description"=>"<p><i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri WT, Δ<i>lov</i> and Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i> strains were stab-inoculated on SB-1% w/v agar plates and grown for two days at 28°C. To analyze the borders of the migration zones, the plates were observed under a magnifying glass (10X), prior (upper panels) and after (lower panels) staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motility", "citri"], "article_id"=>300192, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Twitching_like_motility_of_X_axonopodis_pv_citri_strains_/300192", "title"=>"Twitching-like motility of <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 00:03:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630487"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri WT, Δ<i>lov</i> and Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i> cultures were adjusted to 10<sup>7</sup> colony forming units (CFU)/mL in 10 mM MgCl<sub>2</sub> and used to infiltrate orange leaves. The inoculated leaves were maintained either in a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod (light), or covered with cardboard envelopes (darkness). Leaf samples were taken at different times after inoculation, 0.8 cm diameter discs were ground in 100 µL of 10 mM MgCl<sub>2</sub> and after serial dilution samples were plated for colony counting. Results were expressed as Log CFU/mL. (B) Symptoms developed in the infiltrated leaves two weeks after inoculation with the bacterial cultures. (C) Tissue damage was quantified by digital image analysis of the infiltrated leaves. Results were expressed as relative necrotic area 100 X [necrotic area (brown) pixels/total infiltrated area (dotted line) pixels]. Data are represented as the mean +/− standard error of three independent biological samples and different letters above the bars indicate significant differences between the corresponding data (p<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "plant biology", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>300972, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_planta_growth_and_disease_symptoms_/300972", "title"=>"<i>In planta</i> growth and disease symptoms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 00:16:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630590"], "description"=>"<p>Ap: ampicillin; Km: kanamycin; Cm: chloramphenicol; Gm: gentamycin; UFS: upstream flanking sequence; DSF: downstream flanking sequence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strains"], "article_id"=>301082, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_strains_and_plasmids_/301082", "title"=>"Bacterial strains and plasmids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 00:18:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629260"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Absorption spectra of dark- and light-adapted states of Xac-LOV protein (black and red lines, respectively). The inset displays the light-minus-dark difference spectrum showing the typical features of a LOV photoreceptor protein. (B) Absorption spectra of dark- and light-adapted states of Xac-LOV protein corrected for the scattering contribution (black and red lines, respectively). Fluorescence spectra (450 nm excitation) of the dark and light state of the protein are shown in green and blue lines, respectively. (C) Dark recovery kinetics of Xac-LOV recorded by monitoring the recovery of FMN fluorescence at 500 nm after excitation at 305 nm at 20°C. Fitting of the trace with a monoexponential function (red line) gave a lifetime τ<sub>rec</sub> = 5200 sec. a.u.: arbitrary units.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recombinant", "xac-lov"], "article_id"=>299751, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectroscopic_analysis_of_recombinant_Xac_LOV_protein_from_X_axonopodis_pv_citri_/299751", "title"=>"Spectroscopic analysis of recombinant Xac-LOV protein from <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 02:42:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630366"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri WT, Δ<i>lov</i> and Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i> strains were grown in XVM2 medium, cultures were centrifuged, resuspended and placed on the abaxial face of orange leaves. After incubation at 28°C for 6 h under light and dark conditions, surface-attached cells were stained with 0.1% w/v Crystal violet dye. Control: XVM2 medium. The order of inoculation is indicated at the left of the panel. Dashed lines in the leaves indicate the inoculated area (B) Adhesion was quantified by image analysis determining the spot density (intensity/pixel area) of each adhesion region. Data are represented as the mean +/− standard error of three independent biological samples and different letters above the bars indicate significant differences between the corresponding data (p<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["citri", "strains"], "article_id"=>300852, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adhesion_of_X_axonopodis_pv_citri_strains_to_orange_leaves_/300852", "title"=>"Adhesion of <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri strains to orange leaves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 00:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629096"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Representation of the Xac-LOV protein showing the LOV domain (LOV, aa 39-142), the Histidine Kinase domain (HK, aa 167-396) and the Response-Regulator domain (RR, aa 417-533). Cys 76: amino acid involved in photoadduct formation. (B) Multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences of LOV proteins from <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri (Xac), <i>Xanthomonas campestris</i> pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), <i>Xanthomonas oryzae</i> pv. oryzae (Xoo), <i>Xanthomonas campestris</i> pv. campestris (Xcc), <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. syringae (Pss), <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. tomato (Pst), <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. phaseolicola (Psp) and <i>Xanthomonas albilineans</i> (Xal); performed using ClustalX <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226#pone.0038226-Thompson1\" target=\"_blank\">[83]</a>. The LOV, HK and RR domains are highlighted in blue, yellow and green, respectively. An asterisk indicates complete residue conservation, a colon indicates strong group conservation, a period indicates weak group conservation, and a blank space indicates no conservation of residues.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["xac-lov"], "article_id"=>299586, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_silico_analysis_of_the_Xac_LOV_protein_/299586", "title"=>"<i>In silico</i> analysis of the Xac-LOV protein.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 02:39:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629478"], "description"=>"<p><i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri WT, Δ<i>lov</i> and Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i> strains were grown on SB-0.7% w/v agar plates at 28°C for three days under light and dark conditions. (A) Direct observation of the migration zones. (B) Measurement of migration zones diameters. Data are represented as the mean +/− standard error of three independent biological samples and different letters above the bars indicate significant differences between the corresponding data (p<0.01). (C) Bacteria from the center and border regions of the migration zones were examined under a light microscope at a 1000X magnification. Arrows indicate bacterium flagella.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motility", "citri"], "article_id"=>299965, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Swarming_motility_of_X_axonopodis_pv_citri_strains_/299965", "title"=>"Swarming motility of <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 02:46:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630241"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri WT, Δ<i>lov</i> and Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i> strains were grown in XVM2 medium, centrifuged, resuspended in the same medium, and 100 µL of the bacterial suspensions were placed in the wells of a 96-well polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plate. After incubation at 28°C for 6 h under light and dark conditions, surface-attached cells were stained with 1% w/v Crystal violet. (B) The attached dye was solubilized with 95% ethanol, transferred to an eppendorf tube and quantified by absorbance at 540 nm. Data are represented as the mean +/− standard error of three independent biological samples and different letters above the bars indicate significant differences between the corresponding data (p<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["citri", "strains", "abiotic"], "article_id"=>300732, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adhesion_of_X_axonopodis_pv_citri_strains_to_an_abiotic_surface_/300732", "title"=>"Adhesion of <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri strains to an abiotic surface.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 00:12:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325836", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325861", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325915", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325946", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325968", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326000", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326029", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326050", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326064"], "description"=>"<div><p>Recent studies have demonstrated that an appropriate light environment is required for the establishment of efficient vegetal resistance responses in several plant-pathogen interactions. The photoreceptors implicated in such responses are mainly those belonging to the phytochrome family. Data obtained from bacterial genome sequences revealed the presence of photosensory proteins of the BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using FAD), LOV (Light, Oxygen, Voltage) and phytochrome families with no known functions. <em>Xanthomonas axonopodis</em> pv. citri is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for citrus canker. The <em>in silico</em> analysis of the <em>X. axonopodis</em> pv. citri genome sequence revealed the presence of a gene encoding a putative LOV photoreceptor, in addition to two genes encoding BLUF proteins. This suggests that blue light sensing could play a role in <em>X. axonopodis</em> pv. citri physiology. We obtained the recombinant Xac-LOV protein by expression in <em>Escherichia coli</em> and performed a spectroscopic analysis of the purified protein, which demonstrated that it has a canonical LOV photochemistry. We also constructed a mutant strain of <em>X. axonopodis</em> pv. citri lacking the LOV protein and found that the loss of this protein altered bacterial motility, exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. Moreover, we observed that the adhesion of the mutant strain to abiotic and biotic surfaces was significantly diminished compared to the wild-type. Finally, inoculation of orange (<em>Citrus sinensis</em>) leaves with the mutant strain of <em>X. axonopodis</em> pv. citri resulted in marked differences in the development of symptoms in plant tissues relative to the wild-type, suggesting a role for the Xac-LOV protein in the pathogenic process. Altogether, these results suggest the novel involvement of a photosensory system in the regulation of physiological attributes of a phytopathogenic bacterium. A functional blue light receptor in <em>Xanthomonas</em> spp. has been described for the first time, showing an important role in virulence during citrus canker disease.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lov", "modulates", "physiological", "attributes", "citri", "colonization"], "article_id"=>124310, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_LOV_Protein_Modulates_the_Physiological_Attributes_of_Xanthomonas_axonopodis_pv_citri_Relevant_for_Host_Plant_Colonization/124310", "title"=>"A LOV Protein Modulates the Physiological Attributes of <em>Xanthomonas axonopodis</em> pv. citri Relevant for Host Plant Colonization", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 01:11:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/629851"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri WT, Δ<i>lov</i> and Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i> colonies were analyzed on SB-1.5% w/v agar plates supplemented with 4 g/L glucose. (B) Xanthan was precipitated and quantified from bacterial culture supernatants after two days of bacterial growth in light and dark conditions. Data are represented as the mean +/− standard error of three independent biological samples and different letters above the bars indicate significant differences between the corresponding data (p<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphology", "exopolysaccharide", "citri"], "article_id"=>300339, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Colony_morphology_and_exopolysaccharide_production_of_X_axonopodis_pv_citri_strains_/300339", "title"=>"Colony morphology and exopolysaccharide production of <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 00:05:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630039"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled bacteria were grown on chambered cover slides and visualized under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after two (i) and five (ii) days of bacterial growth. For each time period, the upper panels show the biofilms developed at the bottom of the chambered cover slides with a magnification of 400X, and the bottom panels show a 2X zoom of the regions marked in the previous panels. Scale bars, 50 µm. In this experiment Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i> corresponds to the Δ<i>lov</i> strain complemented with pBBR-p<i>lov</i>2 (Δ<i>lov</i>-p<i>lov</i>’). (B) <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri strains were statically grown on glass tubes for two weeks at 28°C. Biofilms were observed on the air-liquid interface. In each case, bacteria were grown under light and dark conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["citri"], "article_id"=>300530, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Ivana Kraiselburd", "Analía I. Alet", "María Laura Tondo", "Silvana Petrocelli", "Lucas D. Daurelio", "Jesica Monzón", "Oscar A. Ruiz", "Aba Losi", "Elena G. Orellano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038226.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biofilm_formation_by_X_axonopodis_pv_citri_strains_/300530", "title"=>"Biofilm formation by <i>X. axonopodis</i> pv. citri strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-04 00:08:50"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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