Parrots Eat Nutritious Foods despite Toxins
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{"title"=>"Parrots eat nutritious foods despite toxins", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"James D.", "last_name"=>"Gilardi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701809799"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine A.", "last_name"=>"Toft", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701505481"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"22679496", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038293", "pui"=>"364955429", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84861839723", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861839723"}, "id"=>"c051f772-debe-3034-8211-4d4eeab7db70", "abstract"=>"Background Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals) and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. Methodology/Principal Findings We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992–1993) and one wet season (January-February1994). We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. Conclusions/Significance Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was scarce for other frugivores and granivores.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/parrots-eat-nutritious-foods-despite-toxins", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627546"], "description"=>"1<p>Observations are pooled for all three macaw species, <i>Ara macao</i>, <i>A. chloroptera</i>, and <i>A. ararauana</i>, comparing foods eaten by a member of at least one species of <i>Ara</i> macaw with foods not eaten by macaws in this study, but available simultaneously to macaws during their foraging activities.</p>2<p>All values are on a dry-weight basis. Units are: percentage for proximate nutritional components; percentage chlorogenic acid equivalents for phenolics; mg/g for estimates of LD<sub>50</sub>; and mg/kg for minerals. All data was log(10) transformed for analysis, and non- transformed values are presented.</p>3<p>A straight Bonferroni correction for 14 comparisons yields none of these univariate comparisons statistically significant. We present these data nevertheless, because of criticism of this correction being overly conservative and resulting in excessive Type II error (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038293#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>), particularly in disciplines such as ecology and behavior where data are difficult to obtain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["consumed", "macaws", "compared"], "article_id"=>298037, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James D. Gilardi", "Catherine A. Toft"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038293.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nutritional_content_mean_SE_of_plant_species_consumed_by_macaws_compared_with_plant_species_not_eaten_1_2_3_/298037", "title"=>"Nutritional content (mean ± SE) of plant species consumed by macaws compared with plant species not eaten.<sup>1,2,3</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:13:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325432", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325548"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals) and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992–1993) and one wet season (January-February1994). We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was scarce for other frugivores and granivores.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parrots", "nutritious", "foods", "toxins"], "article_id"=>124238, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James D. Gilardi", "Catherine A. Toft"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038293.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038293.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Parrots_Eat_Nutritious_Foods_despite_Toxins/124238", "title"=>"Parrots Eat Nutritious Foods despite Toxins", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 01:10:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627579"], "description"=>"1<p>All values are on a dry-weight basis. Units are: percentage for proximate nutritional components; percentage chlorogenic acid equivalents for phenolics; mg/g for estimates of LD<sub>50</sub>; and mg/kg for minerals. All data was log(10) transformed for analysis, and non-transformed values are presented.</p>2<p>Using the standard Bonferroni correction for P-values, the following variables retain a statistically significant effect: Crude protein, P<0.00014; calcium, P<0.00014; sulfur, P = 0.0014; phosphorus, P = 0.0014; fiber (NDF), P = 0.0028; zinc, P = 0.0294; total phenolics, P = 0.0378. Fat becomes only marginally significant, P = 0.0672.</p>3<p>For each variable, a sequential Bonferroni comparison of means of different plant parts is indicated by letters, i.e., a, b, c, to note significant differences between means. These are provided only for variables with significant univariate effects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["consumed", "parrots", "lowland", "humid", "forests"], "article_id"=>298070, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James D. Gilardi", "Catherine A. Toft"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038293.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nutritional_content_mean_SE_of_plant_species_consumed_by_parrots_in_lowland_humid_forests_of_Per_1_/298070", "title"=>"Nutritional content (mean ± SE) of plant species consumed by parrots in lowland humid forests of Perú.<sup>1</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627612"], "description"=>"1<p>Number of observations equals the number of unique observations of individuals of a given species of parrot feeding on some part of a given species of tree, for a total of 224 unique observations of 17 species of parrots collectively exploiting 102 species of trees. Only the first unique combination of parrot and tree species was used to ensure independence of observations (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038293#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>). Thus the number of observations for a given parrot species is equal to the number of tree species exploited by each species of parrot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["102", "exploited", "17", "parrots", "lowland", "humid", "specifying", "parts"], "article_id"=>298103, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James D. Gilardi", "Catherine A. Toft"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038293.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_a_total_of_102_plant_species_exploited_by_each_of_17_species_of_parrots_in_lowland_humid_forest_of_Per_250_specifying_the_plant_parts_used_as_food_/298103", "title"=>"Number of a total of 102 plant species exploited by each of 17 species of parrots in lowland humid forest of Perú, specifying the plant parts used as food.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:15:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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