Evolution of Fruit Traits in Ficus Subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae): To What Extent Do Frugivores Determine Seed Dispersal Mode?
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{"title"=>"Evolution of fruit traits in Ficus subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae): To what extent do frugivores determine seed dispersal mode?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rhett D.", "last_name"=>"Harrison", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403906434"}, {"first_name"=>"Nina", "last_name"=>"Rønsted", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602333314"}, {"first_name"=>"Lei", "last_name"=>"Xu", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199907350"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Yves", "last_name"=>"Rasplus", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003648597"}, {"first_name"=>"Astrid", "last_name"=>"Cruaud", "scopus_author_id"=>"14047849700"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038432", "sgr"=>"84861889466", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364955379", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"22679505", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861889466"}, "id"=>"5a9f84fc-d9f9-3c46-a619-e813ab106a16", "abstract"=>"Fig trees are a ubiquitous component of tropical rain forests and exhibit an enormous diversity of ecologies. Focusing on Ficus subgenus Sycomorus, a phenotypically diverse and ecologically important Old World lineage, we examined the evolution of fruit traits using a molecular phylogeny constructed using 5 kilobases of DNA sequence data from 63 species (50% of global diversity). In particular, we ask whether patterns of trait correlations are consistent with dispersal agents as the primary selective force shaping morphological diversity or if other ecological factors may provide a better explanation? Fig colour, size and placement (axial, cauliflorous, or geocarpic) were all highly evolutionarily liable, and the same fruit traits have evolved in different biogeographic regions with substantially different dispersal agents. After controlling for phylogenetic autocorrelation, we found that fig colour and size were significantly associated with fig placement and plant-life history traits (maximum plant height and leaf area, respectively). However, contrary to prevailing assumptions, fig placement correlated poorly with known dispersal agents and appears more likely determined by other factors, such as flowering phenology, nutrient economy, and habitat preference. Thus, plant life-history, both directly and through its influence on fig placement, appears to have played a prominent role in determining fruit traits in these figs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evolution-fruit-traits-ficus-subgenus-sycomorus-moraceae-extent-frugivores-determine-seed-dispersal", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>49, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>49}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "China"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>2, "India"=>1, "Costa Rica"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/628785"], "description"=>"<p>Colour was treated as a binomial response (green = 0, red = 1). We controlled for phylogenetic auto-correlation using Moran’s eigenvectors as covariates (not shown for clarity). Variables included in the analysis were fig placement, breeding system (monoecious, dioecious) and biogeographic region as factors, and fig size (log transformed), plant maximum height (square-root transformed), and maximum leaf area (log transformed) as variates. The optimal model retained just plant max. height and fig placement (Deviance explained = 27.8, Residual deviance = 53.6 on 56 d.f). The factor levels for fig placement are compared with axial figs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fig"], "article_id"=>299278, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rhett D. Harrison", "Nina Rønsted", "Lei Xu", "Jean-Yves Rasplus", "Astrid Cruaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_results_of_the_analysis_of_fig_colour_/299278", "title"=>"Model results of the analysis of fig colour.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:34:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/628287"], "description"=>"<p>a) <i>F. variegata</i> reaches up to 40 m high and is often one of the largest trees in secondary forests (man in photograph ∼ 1.5 m tall (face covered to protect identity)). The cauliflorous figs, borne from small nodes, can just be made out on the trunk. b) <i>F. squamosa</i>, rheophytic (river side) shrub up to 1.5 m high with axial figs (inset). c) <i>F. pseudopalma</i> (inset to scale, the man, who is ∼2 m tall, is holding up a dead leaf) has the second largest leaves in the subgenus and is one of only two monopodial (unbranched) species <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432#pone.0038432-Corner2\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>. d) <i>F. hispida</i> has cauliflorous figs borne on woody branchlets (cauliflorus type (i)). e) <i>F. cereicarpa</i> is a cauliflorous species with very large figs (∼10 cm diameter). This is a male tree, which bears figs around the base of the tree, as is typical of several other species. Older figs, whose wasps have already emerged, can be seen rotting behind and under bunches of newer figs. f) <i>F. ribes</i> has small cauliflorous figs borne on rope-like stolons (cauliflorus type (ii)). <i>F. semicordata</i>: g) a female tree bearing figs at the base of the trunk and h) male figs buried in the soil. For the latter, the leaf litter and soil were scrapped away to reveal the figs. i) Male fig of <i>F. variegata</i> with non-pollinating wasps (<i>Sycophaga</i> sp.) ovipositing through the wall. The brown dots on other figs in the background are bruises resulting from earlier ovipositor insertions. Cauliflorous figs, like this, are often heavily attacked by non-pollinating wasps, which can significantly reduce pollinator production and thus pollen dispersal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subgenus"], "article_id"=>298781, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rhett D. Harrison", "Nina Rønsted", "Lei Xu", "Jean-Yves Rasplus", "Astrid Cruaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diversity_of_functional_traits_in_Ficus_subgenus_Sycomorus_/298781", "title"=>"Diversity of functional traits in <i>Ficus</i> subgenus <i>Sycomorus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:26:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/628814"], "description"=>"<p>(a) bird and primate only, (b) bat only, (c) other mammals, and (d) mixed (bat plus bird and/or primate), against fig placement. Data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432#pone.0038432-Shanahan1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frugivory", "records", "32", "subgenus"], "article_id"=>299310, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rhett D. Harrison", "Nina Rønsted", "Lei Xu", "Jean-Yves Rasplus", "Astrid Cruaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_table_of_frugivory_records_for_32_Ficus_subgenus_Sycomorus_species_/299310", "title"=>"Frequency table of frugivory records for 32 <i>Ficus</i> subgenus <i>Sycomorus</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:35:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/628737"], "description"=>"<p>The y-axis represents the residuals after controlling for phylogenetic auto-correlation (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>). Dark grey and light grey points represent species with “red” and “green” mature figs, respectively. Relative to axial figs, cauliflorus type (ii) (est = 8.468±3.2355, t = 2.617, <i>p</i> = 0.01147) and geocarpic (est = 4.237±1.5943, t = 2.658, <i>p</i> = 0.01033) figs were significantly larger, figs on species with larger leaves were significantly larger (est = 0.998±0.1843, t = 5.418, <i>p</i> = 0.000001), and there was a significant negative interaction between fig placement and leaf area for cauliflorous type (i) (est = –1.665±0.5972, t = –2.789, <i>p</i> = 0.00729) and geocarpic (est = −0.816±0.2978, t = –2.739, <i>p</i> = 0.00832) species (<i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432#pone.0038432.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a></i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fig"], "article_id"=>299228, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rhett D. Harrison", "Nina Rønsted", "Lei Xu", "Jean-Yves Rasplus", "Astrid Cruaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Panel_plot_of_fig_size_log_transformed_against_leaf_area_log_transformed_by_fig_placement_type_/299228", "title"=>"Panel plot of fig size (log transformed) against leaf area (log transformed) by fig placement type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:33:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325469", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325529", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325609", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325640"], "description"=>"<div><p>Fig trees are a ubiquitous component of tropical rain forests and exhibit an enormous diversity of ecologies. Focusing on <em>Ficus</em> subgenus <em>Sycomorus</em>, a phenotypically diverse and ecologically important Old World lineage, we examined the evolution of fruit traits using a molecular phylogeny constructed using 5 kilobases of DNA sequence data from 63 species (50% of global diversity). In particular, we ask whether patterns of trait correlations are consistent with dispersal agents as the primary selective force shaping morphological diversity or if other ecological factors may provide a better explanation? Fig colour, size and placement (axial, cauliflorous, or geocarpic) were all highly evolutionarily liable, and the same fruit traits have evolved in different biogeographic regions with substantially different dispersal agents. After controlling for phylogenetic autocorrelation, we found that fig colour and size were significantly associated with fig placement and plant-life history traits (maximum plant height and leaf area, respectively). However, contrary to prevailing assumptions, fig placement correlated poorly with known dispersal agents and appears more likely determined by other factors, such as flowering phenology, nutrient economy, and habitat preference. Thus, plant life-history, both directly and through its influence on fig placement, appears to have played a prominent role in determining fruit traits in these figs.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["traits", "subgenus", "frugivores", "dispersal"], "article_id"=>124246, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rhett D. Harrison", "Nina Rønsted", "Lei Xu", "Jean-Yves Rasplus", "Astrid Cruaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evolution_of_Fruit_Traits_in_Ficus_Subgenus_Sycomorus_Moraceae_To_What_Extent_Do_Frugivores_Determine_Seed_Dispersal_Mode_/124246", "title"=>"Evolution of Fruit Traits in <em>Ficus</em> Subgenus <em>Sycomorus</em> (Moraceae): To What Extent Do Frugivores Determine Seed Dispersal Mode?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 01:10:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/628532"], "description"=>"<p>The Bayesian topology was similar and we have mapped node support from both analyses (BP/PP). Node support was mapped for nodes with >75 BP or >0.90 PP. Also shown are fruit traits, including fig placement (squares; black = axial, dark grey = cauliflorous type (i), no fill = cauliflorous type (ii), light grey = geocarpic), fig colour (circles; black = red, dark grey = green), and fig diameter (triangles; light grey = <2 cm, dark grey = 2–<4 cm, black = 4+cm), biogeographic distribution (diamonds; light grey = Africa (+Madagascar and Indian Ocean), dark grey = Asia (West of Wallace’s line), black = Pacific (East of Wallace’s line)), and current taxonomy based on morphological characteristics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subgenus"], "article_id"=>299030, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rhett D. Harrison", "Nina Rønsted", "Lei Xu", "Jean-Yves Rasplus", "Astrid Cruaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeny_of_Ficus_subgenus_Sycomorus_using_maximum_likelihood_estimation_/299030", "title"=>"Phylogeny of <i>Ficus</i> subgenus <i>Sycomorus</i> using maximum likelihood estimation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-05 02:30:30"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[350, 552, 657, 754, 839, 932, 1023, 1103, 1197, 1274, 1359, 1436, 1499, 1564, 1640, 1726, 1794, 1865, 1933, 2021, 2101, 2181, 2239, 2324, 2376]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Plant science", "average_usage"=>[329, 543, 667, 773, 865, 963, 1066, 1149, 1233, 1323, 1411, 1500, 1588, 1661, 1732, 1803, 1887, 1978, 2057, 2138, 2203, 2283, 2363, 2419, 2493]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[348, 541, 638, 730, 827, 907, 993, 1074, 1152, 1232, 1310, 1379, 1442, 1507, 1576, 1648, 1715, 1786, 1854, 1926, 1991, 2059, 2125, 2181, 2249]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Biogeography", "average_usage"=>[366, 546, 656, 734, 830, 901, 986, 1076, 1161, 1245, 1325, 1404, 1474, 1538, 1609, 1670, 1740, 1818, 1889, 1954, 2030, 2090, 2147, 2218, 2304]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[347, 547, 641, 742, 836, 927, 1016, 1099, 1184, 1267, 1348, 1418, 1484, 1555, 1631, 1705, 1788, 1843, 1917, 1985, 2052, 2115, 2190, 2258, 2333]}]}
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