A Glucose Fuel Cell for Implantable Brain–Machine Interfaces
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{"title"=>"A glucose fuel cell for implantable brain-machine interfaces", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Benjamin I.", "last_name"=>"Rapoport", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102019504"}, {"first_name"=>"Jakub T.", "last_name"=>"Kedzierski", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005160753"}, {"first_name"=>"Rahul", "last_name"=>"Sarpeshkar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004914356"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862165737", "sgr"=>"84862165737", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038436", "pmid"=>"22719888", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"364995796"}, "id"=>"c0f76294-5dca-363b-b60b-a195111c357b", "abstract"=>"We have developed an implantable fuel cell that generates power through glucose oxidation, producing 3.4 μW cm(-2) steady-state power and up to 180 μW cm(-2) peak power. The fuel cell is manufactured using a novel approach, employing semiconductor fabrication techniques, and is therefore well suited for manufacture together with integrated circuits on a single silicon wafer. Thus, it can help enable implantable microelectronic systems with long-lifetime power sources that harvest energy from their surrounds. The fuel reactions are mediated by robust, solid state catalysts. Glucose is oxidized at the nanostructured surface of an activated platinum anode. Oxygen is reduced to water at the surface of a self-assembled network of single-walled carbon nanotubes, embedded in a Nafion film that forms the cathode and is exposed to the biological environment. The catalytic electrodes are separated by a Nafion membrane. The availability of fuel cell reactants, oxygen and glucose, only as a mixture in the physiologic environment, has traditionally posed a design challenge: Net current production requires oxidation and reduction to occur separately and selectively at the anode and cathode, respectively, to prevent electrochemical short circuits. Our fuel cell is configured in a half-open geometry that shields the anode while exposing the cathode, resulting in an oxygen gradient that strongly favors oxygen reduction at the cathode. Glucose reaches the shielded anode by diffusing through the nanotube mesh, which does not catalyze glucose oxidation, and the Nafion layers, which are permeable to small neutral and cationic species. We demonstrate computationally that the natural recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid around the human brain theoretically permits glucose energy harvesting at a rate on the order of at least 1 mW with no adverse physiologic effects. Low-power brain-machine interfaces can thus potentially benefit from having their implanted units powered or recharged by glucose fuel cells.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/glucose-fuel-cell-implantable-brainmachine-interfaces", "reader_count"=>189, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>55, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>29, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>55, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>29, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>2, "Chemistry"=>19, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>92, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Materials Science"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>11}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>92}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>19}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Latvia"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>8, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "South Africa"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/626123"], "description"=>"<p>The oxidation current generated by the fuel cell anode, characterized here via cyclic voltammetry, varies with glucose concentration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depends", "glucose"], "article_id"=>296621, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oxidation_Current_Depends_on_Glucose_Concentration_/296621", "title"=>"Oxidation Current Depends on Glucose Concentration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:05:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625829"], "description"=>"<p>This pair of scanning electron micrographs, taken at the same level of magnification, illustrates the effects of our surface roughening technique. The image at left is a high-magnification image of atomically smooth platinum deposited by evaporation on silicon dioxide. The image at right is taken from one of our roughened anodes, and shows the highly porous nanostructure of the electrode.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "physiology", "neuroscience", "neurological disorders", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>296315, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nanostructural_Effects_of_Surface_Roughening_/296315", "title"=>"Nanostructural Effects of Surface Roughening.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:04:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625703"], "description"=>"<p>This set of scanning electron micrographs, taken of a fuel cell anode at increasing levels of magnification (as indicated by the scale bars in each image), illustrates the effects of the roughening procedure on electrode surface structure over a hierarchy of length scales from nanometers to micrometers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["micro-"], "article_id"=>296204, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anode_Micro_and_Nanostructure_/296204", "title"=>"Anode Micro- and Nanostructure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:03:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625892"], "description"=>"<p>Atomic force microscopic measurements of <i>z</i>-direction (plane-normal) surface roughness at the 10 µm and 1 µm scales (upper and lower images, respectively), comparing atomically smooth platinum (left images) with the roughened anodes we describe here (right images).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microscopic", "anode"], "article_id"=>296394, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atomic_Force_Microscopic_Measurements_of_Anode_Surface_Roughness_/296394", "title"=>"Atomic Force Microscopic Measurements of Anode Surface Roughness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:04:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625973"], "description"=>"<p>The performance of the fuel cell is characterized through its output voltage (blue, left axis) and power density (red, right axis) as functions of output current density. A 2 mm<sup>2</sup> device exhibits an open-cell voltage of 192 mV and achieves maximum power output of more than 180 µW cm<sup>−2</sup> when sourcing 1.5–1.85 mA cm<sup>−2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polarization"], "article_id"=>296469, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fuel_Cell_Polarization_Curve_/296469", "title"=>"Fuel Cell Polarization Curve.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:04:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625605"], "description"=>"<p>These optical micrographs illustrate the effect of the roughening technique on the anode surface, showing the atomically smooth platinum traces (narrow metallic strips) leading to the anode in contrast with the anode itself (large rectangular area). The roughness of the anode surface is detectable optically as an abrupt change in color and texture. The image at right is an enlargement of the central region of the image at left, focusing on the boundary between the smooth and rough platinum surfaces (rotated with the wire trace set vertical). Scale: The wire traces (left and bottom left, respectively) are 100 <i>µ</i>m wide.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "physiology", "neuroscience", "neurological disorders", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>296098, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anode_Roughening_/296098", "title"=>"Anode Roughening.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:03:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/626380"], "description"=>"<p>Typical values for the principal ionic constituents of mammalian cerebrospinal and interstitial fluids <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436#pone.0038436-Rosenberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cerebrospinal", "interstitial"], "article_id"=>296879, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ionic_Composition_of_Cerebrospinal_Fluid_and_Interstitial_Fluid_/296879", "title"=>"Ionic Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:06:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625510"], "description"=>"<p>This schematic cross-section of the glucose fuel cell illustrates the structure of the device, as well as the oxygen and glucose concentration gradients crucially associated with its cathode and anode half-cell reactions, and underlying their respective site specificity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "physiology", "neuroscience", "neurological disorders", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>295997, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Glucose_Fuel_Cell_in_Cross_Section_/295997", "title"=>"Glucose Fuel Cell in Cross Section.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:02:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625238"], "description"=>"<p>Conceptual schematic design for a system that harvests power from the cerebrospinal fluid, showing a plausible site of implantation within the subarachnoid space. The inset at right is a micrograph of one prototype, showing the metal layers of the anode (central electrode) and cathode contact (outer ring) patterned on a silicon wafer. <i>Image Credit: Meninges and Vascular Anatomy courtesy of the Central Nervous System Visual Perspectives Project, Karolinska Institutet and Stanford University.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extraction", "cerebrospinal", "implantable", "glucose"], "article_id"=>295726, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Power_Extraction_from_Cerebrospinal_Fluid_by_an_Implantable_Glucose_Fuel_Cell_/295726", "title"=>"Power Extraction from Cerebrospinal Fluid by an Implantable Glucose Fuel Cell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:01:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/626217"], "description"=>"<p>The image at left shows a set of superimposed photolithographic masks for glucose fuel cells of various sizes, arranged for fabrication on a silicon wafer 150 mm (6 inches) in diameter. The largest device depicted has an anode that measures 64 mm by 64 mm. The anodes of the other fuel cells shown are scaled-down versions of the large device, with length and width alternately reduced by factors of two. The schematic was constructed by overlaying the four process layers: yellow, platinum; orange, roughened platinum anode (aluminum deposition for annealing); blue, Nafion; green, cathode (single-walled carbon nanotubes in Nafion). The photograph at right shows the corresponding silicon wafer as fabricated. Scale Bar: 2 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["masks", "fabricated"], "article_id"=>296714, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photolithography_Masks_and_Fabricated_Fuel_Cells_/296714", "title"=>"Photolithography Masks and Fabricated Fuel Cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:06:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/625414"], "description"=>"<p>This schematic conceptually illustrates the structure of an abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cell, including the essential half-cell and overall reactions, the sites at which they occur within the system, and the flows of reactants and products.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["operational", "implantable", "glucose"], "article_id"=>295909, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_Operational_Scheme_for_an_Implantable_Glucose_Fuel_Cell_/295909", "title"=>"General Operational Scheme for an Implantable Glucose Fuel Cell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:02:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/626331"], "description"=>"<p>Scanning electron micrograph of the fuel cell cathode, showing the conducting mesh of carbon nanotubes encapsulated in Nafion ionomer. Scale Bar: 1 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "physiology", "neuroscience", "neurological disorders", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>296822, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fuel_Cell_Cathode_/296822", "title"=>"Fuel Cell Cathode.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:06:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/626062"], "description"=>"<p>Steady-state output power of the fuel cell exhibits characteristic second-order dependence on the magnitude of the resistive load. A 1 mm<sup>2</sup> device achieves maximum steady-state power output of 3.4 µW cm<sup>−2</sup> when driving a load of 550 kΩ. (Blue curve, lower horizontal axis, linear scale; red curve, upper horizontal axis, logarithmic scale.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matching", "maximize"], "article_id"=>296562, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benjamin I. Rapoport", "Jakub T. Kedzierski", "Rahul Sarpeshkar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038436.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impedance_Matching_to_Maximize_Output_Power_/296562", "title"=>"Impedance Matching to Maximize Output Power.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 04:05:21"}

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Relative Metric

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