Environmental Temperature Affects Prevalence of Blood Parasites of Birds on an Elevation Gradient: Implications for Disease in a Warming Climate
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{"title"=>"Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: Implications for disease in a warming climate", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Itzel", "last_name"=>"Zamora-Vilchis", "scopus_author_id"=>"55256338900"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen E.", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404834819"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher N.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405667303"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84862580401", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0039208", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365049419", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22723966", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862580401"}, "id"=>"de133523-9aab-3ecf-9624-36241c15454b", "abstract"=>"Background The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma) in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. Conclusions/Significance Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/environmental-temperature-affects-prevalence-blood-parasites-birds-elevation-gradient-implications-d", "reader_count"=>172, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>46, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>46, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>114, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>5, "Chemistry"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>23, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>23}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>114}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Colombia"=>2, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Tanzania"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Bulgaria"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/621631"], "description"=>"<p>The elevation, Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Number of sample birds for each locality are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampling"], "article_id"=>292128, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Itzel Zamora-Vilchis", "Stephen E. Williams", "Christopher N. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Localities_of_sampling_in_the_AWT_/292128", "title"=>"Localities of sampling in the AWT.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-19 00:35:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/621553"], "description"=>"<p>One of the mechanisms proposed to compensate increments of parasite prevalence at 0, 1, 2 and 4°C increase in temperature. Filled bars represent the predicted distribution of birds with increments of temperature. At 0°C all bars are filled representing the actual distribution of birds along the elevation gradient, with prevalence variation from 64% in the lowlands to 16% at the highest elevations. For each 1°C increase in temperature, bird distributions need to ascend 200 m in elevation in order to avoid an increase in parasite prevalence. Open bars indicate that birds at that site shifted upwards to the next elevation site to avoid an increase in parasite prevalence, leaving that site unoccupied. Failure to make such a distribution shift would potentially result in higher mortality or reduced reproduction because of elevated blood parasite loads. The shifts in parasite loads are likely to be very large. At an altitude of 1200 m, for example, a 4°C temperature rise is predicted to increase parasite prevalence from 16% to 50%. At this higher temperature, only birds that currently live at 400 m or below will be able to offset increases in parasite prevalence by shifting their distributions upwards; for birds currently living above 400 m, some increase in parasite prevalence are unavoidable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shifts", "upwards"], "article_id"=>292050, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Itzel Zamora-Vilchis", "Stephen E. Williams", "Christopher N. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elevational_shifts_upwards_of_bird_distributions_/292050", "title"=>"Elevational shifts upwards of bird distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-19 00:34:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/621445"], "description"=>"<p>Predicted variation of overall parasite prevalence as a function of a) Mean annual temperature and b) Mean monthly temperature. Month, year and locality (SJ  =  South Johnston and CR  =  Carbine Range) are indicated for each point. Dry season months are marked with asterisks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasite", "prevalence"], "article_id"=>291940, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Itzel Zamora-Vilchis", "Stephen E. Williams", "Christopher N. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_overall_parasite_prevalence_and_temperature_/291940", "title"=>"Relationship between overall parasite prevalence and temperature.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-19 00:32:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/621600"], "description"=>"<p>Parasite prevalence of well represented families (1–6; >15 individuals) and other families (7; <15 individuals). Percentage of total number of birds infected and number of birds infected by each parasite genus (%) (<i>Hae: Haemoproteus, Pla: Plasmodium</i>, Unknown: either <i>Haemoproteus</i> and/or <i>Plasmodium</i>, <i>Leu: Leucocytozoon</i> and <i>Try: Trypanosoma</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevalence"], "article_id"=>292102, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Itzel Zamora-Vilchis", "Stephen E. Williams", "Christopher N. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parasite_prevalence_across_host_families_/292102", "title"=>"Parasite prevalence across host families.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-19 00:35:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/621496"], "description"=>"<p>Parasite prevalence along the elevational gradient with increments of 0°C (•), 1°C (○), 2°C (▴) and 4°C (Δ), using the equation of the linear regression between overall parasite prevalence and mean annual temperature (temperature –140.62/0.1047 =  parasite prevalence). Extrapolations indicated that there will be an increase of about 10% in the prevalence of parasites for each 1°C of increment in temperature.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasite", "prevalence", "increments"], "article_id"=>291988, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Itzel Zamora-Vilchis", "Stephen E. Williams", "Christopher N. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extrapolations_of_parasite_prevalence_with_increments_of_temperature_/291988", "title"=>"Extrapolations of parasite prevalence with increments of temperature.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-19 00:33:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/621386"], "description"=>"<p>A) Predicted variation of Mean annual temperature as a function of elevation. Temperature decreased at an approximately rate of 1°C per 200 m altitude and there was approximately 1°C difference between the two localities sampled at the same elevation and B) Monthly variation of rainfall at the two localities within the region indicated that the dry season began on May and was extended and acute through November or December when the rainy season began. The highest values of rainfall were between February and May. Localities: South Johnston (SJ) and Carbine Range (CR).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rainfall"], "article_id"=>291884, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Itzel Zamora-Vilchis", "Stephen E. Williams", "Christopher N. Johnson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_of_temperature_and_rainfall_at_the_AWT_/291884", "title"=>"Variation of temperature and rainfall at the AWT.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-19 00:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/322862", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/322926", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/322976", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/323036"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (<em>Plasmodium</em>, <em>Haemoproteus</em>, <em>Leucocytozoon</em> and <em>Trypanosoma</em>) in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with <em>Haemoproteus</em> the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["affects", "prevalence", "parasites", "birds", "elevation", "implications", "warming"], "article_id"=>123726, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Itzel Zamora-Vilchis", "Stephen E. Williams", "Christopher N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039208.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Environmental_Temperature_Affects_Prevalence_of_Blood_Parasites_of_Birds_on_an_Elevation_Gradient_Implications_for_Disease_in_a_Warming_Climate/123726", "title"=>"Environmental Temperature Affects Prevalence of Blood Parasites of Birds on an Elevation Gradient: Implications for Disease in a Warming Climate", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-19 01:02:06"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Parasitology", "average_usage"=>[352, 609, 728, 831, 918, 998, 1091, 1195, 1289, 1369, 1442, 1504, 1573, 1647, 1722, 1799, 1877, 1938, 2013, 2106, 2166, 2242, 2306, 2371, 2452]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[307, 536, 653, 753, 839, 926, 1017, 1103, 1189, 1268, 1348, 1425, 1492, 1557, 1620, 1686, 1759, 1825, 1891, 1950, 2014, 2079, 2141, 2200, 2255]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Parasitic diseases", "average_usage"=>[357, 723, 872, 1005, 1118, 1230, 1343, 1452, 1559, 1664, 1758, 1833, 1919, 1999, 2076, 2152, 2223, 2295, 2359, 2437, 2528, 2600, 2688, 2743, 2789]}]}
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