Fact or Factitious? A Psychobiological Study of Authentic and Simulated Dissociative Identity States
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{"title"=>"Fact or factitious? a psychobiological study of authentic and simulated dissociative identity States", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"A. A.T.S.", "last_name"=>"Reinders", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003392208"}, {"first_name"=>"Antoon T.M.", "last_name"=>"Willemsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004820111"}, {"first_name"=>"Herry P.J.", "last_name"=>"Vos", "scopus_author_id"=>"55270460800"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan A.", "last_name"=>"den Boer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005199466"}, {"first_name"=>"Ellert R.S.", "last_name"=>"Nijenhuis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004005948"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365133327", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0039279", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84863103701", "pmid"=>"22768068", "sgr"=>"84863103701"}, "id"=>"e0e605fb-ee5c-3bf7-9556-ee5d72a3d428", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a disputed psychiatric disorder. Research findings and clinical observations suggest that DID involves an authentic mental disorder related to factors such as traumatization and disrupted attachment. A competing view indicates that DID is due to fantasy proneness, suggestibility, suggestion, and role-playing. Here we examine whether dissociative identity state-dependent psychobiological features in DID can be induced in high or low fantasy prone individuals by instructed and motivated role-playing, and suggestion.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DID patients, high fantasy prone and low fantasy prone controls were studied in two different types of identity states (neutral and trauma-related) in an autobiographical memory script-driven (neutral or trauma-related) imagery paradigm. The controls were instructed to enact the two DID identity states. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study: 11 patients with DID, 10 high fantasy prone DID simulating controls, and 8 low fantasy prone DID simulating controls. Autonomic and subjective reactions were obtained. Differences in psychophysiological and neural activation patterns were found between the DID patients and both high and low fantasy prone controls. That is, the identity states in DID were not convincingly enacted by DID simulating controls. Thus, important differences regarding regional cerebral bloodflow and psychophysiological responses for different types of identity states in patients with DID were upheld after controlling for DID simulation.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings are at odds with the idea that differences among different types of dissociative identity states in DID can be explained by high fantasy proneness, motivated role-enactment, and suggestion. They indicate that DID does not have a sociocultural (e.g., iatrogenic) origin.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fact-factitious-psychobiological-study-authentic-simulated-dissociative-identity-states", "reader_count"=>106, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>34, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>34, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>70, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>14}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>70}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Norway"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/616037"], "description"=>"<p>Differences in regional cerebral bloodflow patterns for the dissociative identity disorder (DID) group (left) and the comparison of this group to the high (middle) and low (right) fantasy prone DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively) are depicted. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone-0039279-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a> for the specific areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["renderings", "differences", "trauma-related"], "article_id"=>286528, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_8220_Glass_brain_8221_renderings_show_differences_in_the_processing_of_the_trauma_related_text_indicated_with_a_small_8216_t_8217_between_the_trauma_related_identity_state_TIS_and_the_neutral_identity_state_NIS_/286528", "title"=>"“Glass brain” renderings show differences in the processing of the trauma-related text (indicated with a small ‘t’) between the trauma-related identity state (TIS) and the neutral identity state (NIS).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:48:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/616227"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of brain areas with statistically significant cerebral blood flow changes when comparing DID patients to high or low DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively) for the dissociative identity state main effects.</p><p>DID  =  dissociative identity disorder patient group.</p><p>CH  =  high fantasy prone DID simulating control group.</p><p>CL  =  low fantasy prone DID simulating control group.</p>I<p> =  <i>A priori</i> brain areas based on Reinders et al. (2006) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Reinders2\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>.</p>II<p> =  Brain areas found only in the DID within group analysis.</p>III<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis, in the DID versus CH between group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CL between group analysis.</p>IIIa<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CH between group analysis.</p>IIIb<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CL between group analysis.</p>IV<p> =  Brain areas not found in the DID within group analysis <i>but</i> appears in the between group analysis DID versus CH <i>or</i> DID versus CL.</p>1<p> =  first peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>2<p> =  second peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>3<p> =  third peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>**<p> =  whole brain multiple comparison correction (<i>p</i><0.05) using false discovery rate statistics <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Genovese1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p>*<p> =  region of interest multiple comparison correction (<i>p</i><0.05) using false discovery rate statistics <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Genovese1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p>u<p> =  Callosomarginal sulcus (SCM) ( =  Cingulate sulcus).</p>v<p> =  Supramarginal gyrus (Rostral I. Parietal Lobule).</p><p>(x, y, z)  =  MNI coordinates in mm.</p><p>L/R  =  Left/Right.</p><p>kE  =  clustersize in voxels (one voxel is 2×2×2 mm).</p><p>NIS  =  neutral identity state.</p><p>TIS  =  trauma-related identity state.</p><p>BA  =  Brodmann area.</p><p>I.  =  inferior; M.  =  middle; S.  =  superior.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "physiology", "neuroscience", "neurological disorders", "Non-clinical medicine", "radiology and medical imaging"], "article_id"=>286718, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_effects_/286718", "title"=>"Main effects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:51:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/616114"], "description"=>"<p>These areas involve the most significant rCBF difference between the dissociative identity disorder patients and high and low fantasy prone DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively) and is shown in both directionality, i.e. the bar graphs, and location, i.e. shown on a coronal overlay (left in the picture is left in the brain). Results show the differential processing of the trauma-related text between the TIS and the NIS, when comparing the DID groups to the high fantasy prone control group (left) and low fantasy prone control group (right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["areas", "indicated", "caudate", "nucleus", "occipitotemporal"], "article_id"=>286604, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_brain_areas_indicated_with_the_blue_cross_i_e_the_peak_voxel_are_from_top_left_to_bottom_right_the_right_caudate_nucleus_dorsal_part_2x_the_left_precuneus_and_the_right_occipitotemporal_sulcus_/286604", "title"=>"The brain areas indicated with the blue cross (i.e. the peak voxel) are (from top left to bottom right): the right caudate nucleus (dorsal part) (2x), the left precuneus, and the right occipitotemporal sulcus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/615882"], "description"=>"<p>Differences in regional cerebral blood flow patterns for the dissociative identity disorder (DID) group (left) and the comparison of this group to the high (middle) and low (right) fantasy prone DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively) are depicted. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone-0039279-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> for the specific areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["renderings", "differences", "trauma-related"], "article_id"=>286375, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_8220_Glass_brain_8221_renderings_show_differences_in_the_processing_of_the_trauma_related_text_indicated_with_a_small_8216_t_8217_and_the_neutral_text_indicated_with_a_small_8216_n_8217_within_the_trauma_related_identity_state_TIS_/286375", "title"=>"“Glass brain” renderings show differences in the processing of the trauma-related text (indicated with a small ‘t’) and the neutral text (indicated with a small ‘n’) within the trauma-related identity state (TIS).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:46:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/616262"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of brain areas with statistically significant cerebral blood flow changes when comparing DID patients to high or low DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively) for the trauma-related memory script effects within dissociative identity state.</p><p>DID  =  dissociative identity disorder patient group.</p><p>CH  =  high fantasy prone DID simulating control group.</p><p>CL  =  low fantasy prone DID simulating control group.</p>I<p> =  <i>A priori</i> brain areas based on Reinders et al. (2006) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Reinders2\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>.</p>II<p> =  Brain areas found only in the DID within group analysis.</p>III<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis, in the DID versus CH between group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CL between group analysis.</p>IIIa<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CH between group analysis.</p>IIIb<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CL between group analysis.</p>IV<p> =  Brain areas not found in the DID within group analysis <i>but</i> appear in the between group analysis DID versus CH <i>or</i> DID versus CL.</p>1<p> =  first peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>2<p> =  second peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>3<p> =  third peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>**<p> =  whole brain multiple comparison correction (<i>p</i><0.05) using false discovery rate statistics <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Genovese1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p>*<p> =  region of interest multiple comparison correction (<i>p</i><0.05) using false discovery rate statistics <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Genovese1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p>u<p> =  Callosomarginal sulcus (SCM) ( =  Cingulate sulcus).</p>v<p> =  Supramarginal gyrus (Rostral I. Parietal Lobule).</p><p>(x, y, z)  =  MNI coordinates in mm.</p><p>L/R  =  Left/Right.</p><p>kE  =  clustersize in voxels (one voxel is 2×2×2 mm).</p><p>NISn  =  neutral identity state exposed to the neutral memory script.</p><p>NISt  =  neutral identity state exposed to the trauma-related memory script.</p><p>TISn  =  trauma-related identity state exposed to the neutral memory script.</p><p>TISt  =  trauma-related identity state exposed to the trauma-related memory script.</p><p>BA  =  Brodmann area.</p><p>I.  =  inferior; M.  =  middle; S.  =  superior.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dissociative"], "article_id"=>286760, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Memory_script_effects_within_dissociative_identity_state_/286760", "title"=>"Memory script effects within dissociative identity state.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:52:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/615673"], "description"=>"<p>The dashed line depicts the response of the neutral identity state (NIS) when listening to the neutral or trauma-related memory script (MS). The solid line depicts the response of the traumatic identity state (TIS) when listening to the neutral or trauma related MS. All three groups are presented per variable: the dissociative identity disorder patients (DID) in pink, the high fantasy prone DID simulating controls (CH) in cyan and the low fantasy prone DID simulating controls (CL) in blue. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone-0039279-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for the statistical values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["averages", "subjective", "sensori-motor", "cardiovascular"], "article_id"=>286164, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphical_representation_of_averages_and_direction_of_subjective_emotional_experiences_subjective_sensori_motor_experiences_and_cardiovascular_responses_/286164", "title"=>"Graphical representation of averages and direction of subjective emotional experiences, subjective sensori-motor experiences, and cardiovascular responses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:42:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/320485", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/320541"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a disputed psychiatric disorder. Research findings and clinical observations suggest that DID involves an authentic mental disorder related to factors such as traumatization and disrupted attachment. A competing view indicates that DID is due to fantasy proneness, suggestibility, suggestion, and role-playing. Here we examine whether dissociative identity state-dependent psychobiological features in DID can be induced in high or low fantasy prone individuals by instructed and motivated role-playing, and suggestion.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>DID patients, high fantasy prone and low fantasy prone controls were studied in two different types of identity states (neutral and trauma-related) in an autobiographical memory script-driven (neutral or trauma-related) imagery paradigm. The controls were instructed to enact the two DID identity states. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study: 11 patients with DID, 10 high fantasy prone DID simulating controls, and 8 low fantasy prone DID simulating controls. Autonomic and subjective reactions were obtained. Differences in psychophysiological and neural activation patterns were found between the DID patients and both high and low fantasy prone controls. That is, the identity states in DID were not convincingly enacted by DID simulating controls. Thus, important differences regarding regional cerebral bloodflow and psychophysiological responses for different types of identity states in patients with DID were upheld after controlling for DID simulation.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The findings are at odds with the idea that differences among different types of dissociative identity states in DID can be explained by high fantasy proneness, motivated role-enactment, and suggestion. They indicate that DID does not have a sociocultural (e.g., iatrogenic) origin.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychobiological", "authentic", "simulated", "dissociative", "states"], "article_id"=>123249, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Fact_or_Factitious_A_Psychobiological_Study_of_Authentic_and_Simulated_Dissociative_Identity_States/123249", "title"=>"Fact or Factitious? A Psychobiological Study of Authentic and Simulated Dissociative Identity States", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 00:54:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/615819"], "description"=>"<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone-0039279-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for the specific areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["renderings", "dissociative", "trauma-related", "prone", "did", "simulating", "controls", "cl"], "article_id"=>286306, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_8220_Glass_brain_8221_renderings_showing_the_dissociative_identity_state_main_effects_both_for_the_trauma_related_identity_state_TIS_and_for_the_neutral_identity_state_NIS_for_the_dissociative_identity_disorder_DID_group_left_and_the_comparison_of_this_g/286306", "title"=>"“Glass brain” renderings showing the dissociative identity state main effects, both for the trauma-related identity state (TIS) and for the neutral identity state (NIS), for the dissociative identity disorder (DID) group (left) and the comparison of this group to the high (middle) and low (right) fantasy prone DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:45:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/616295"], "description"=>"<p>Factorial statistical analyses of the between group (DID versus high or low fantasy prone DID simulating healthy controls, respectively) subjective reactions (emotional and sensori-motor ratings) and autonomic (discrete heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate variability) measurements. The statistical analyses consist of the two main effects and the accompanying interaction effect. Statistical values are reported in <i>p</i> values.</p>**<p> =  <i>p</i><0.0083 (i.e., corrected for multiple comparisons).</p>*<p> =  <i>p</i><0.05 (i.e., uncorrected for multiple comparisons).</p><p>DID  =  dissociative identity disorder.</p><p>CH  =  high fantasy prone DID simulating controls.</p><p>CL  =  low fantasy prone DID simulating controls.</p><p>DIS  =  dissociative identity state.</p><p>DIS*Group  =  interaction effect.</p><p>MS  =  memory script.</p><p>MS*Group  =  interaction effect.</p><p>DIS * MS  =  interaction effect.</p><p>DIS*MS*Group  =  interaction effect.</p><p>HRV-AVG  =  average of normal-to-normal time intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subjective", "autonomic"], "article_id"=>286792, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Between_group_Subjective_and_autonomic_reactions_/286792", "title"=>"Between group: Subjective and autonomic reactions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:53:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/616189"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of brain areas with statistically significant cerebral blood flow changes when comparing DID patients to high or low DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively) for the trauma-related memory script effects between dissociative identity state.</p><p>DID  =  dissociative identity disorder patient group.</p><p>CH  =  high fantasy prone DID simulating control group.</p><p>CL  =  low fantasy prone DID simulating control group.</p>I<p> =  <i>A priori</i> brain areas based on Reinders et al. (2006) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Reinders2\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>.</p>II<p> =  Brain areas found only in the DID within group analysis.</p>III<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis, in the DID versus CH between group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CL between group analysis.</p>IIIa<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CH between group analysis.</p>IIIb<p> =  Brain areas found in the DID within group analysis <i>and</i> in the DID versus CL between group analysis.</p>IV<p> =  Brain areas not found in the DID within group analysis <i>but</i> appear in the between group analysis DID versus CH <i>or</i> DID versus CL.</p>1<p> =  first peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>2<p> =  second peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>3<p> =  third peak voxel in the cluster of the specified size.</p>**<p> =  whole brain multiple comparison correction (<i>p</i><0.05) using false discovery rate statistics <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Genovese1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p>*<p> =  region of interest multiple comparison correction (<i>p</i><0.05) using false discovery rate statistics <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279#pone.0039279-Genovese1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p>u<p> =  Callosomarginal sulcus (SCM) ( =  Cingulate sulcus).</p>v<p> =  Supramarginal gyrus (Rostral I. Parietal Lobule).</p><p>(x, y, z)  =  MNI coordinates in mm.</p><p>L/R  =  Left/Right.</p><p>kE  =  clustersize in voxels (one voxel is 2×2×2 mm).</p><p>NISn  =  neutral identity state exposed to the neutral memory script.</p><p>NISt  =  neutral identity state exposed to the trauma-related memory script.</p><p>TISn  =  trauma-related identity state exposed to the neutral memory script.</p><p>TISt  =  trauma-related identity state exposed to the trauma-related memory script.</p><p>BA  =  Brodmann area.</p><p>I.  =  inferior; M.  =  middle; S.  =  superior.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dissociative"], "article_id"=>286684, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Memory_script_effects_between_dissociative_identity_states_/286684", "title"=>"Memory script effects between dissociative identity states.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:51:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/615953"], "description"=>"<p><b>the left amygdala, the left insula, the left precuneus, and the right occipitotemporal sulcus.</b> These areas have the most significant rCBF differences between the dissociative identity disorder patients and high and low fantasy prone DID simulating controls (CH and CL respectively) and is shown both in directionality, i.e. the bar graphs, and location, i.e. shown on a coronal overlay (left in the picture is left in the brain). Results show the differential processing of the trauma-related text versus the neutral text within the TIS, when comparing the DID groups to the high fantasy prone control group (left) and low fantasy prone control group (right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["areas", "indicated"], "article_id"=>286450, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Physiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["A. A. T. Simone Reinders", "Antoon T. M. Willemsen", "Herry P. J. Vos", "Johan A. den Boer", "Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_brain_areas_indicated_with_the_blue_cross_i_e_the_peak_voxel_are_from_top_left_to_bottom_right_/286450", "title"=>"The brain areas indicated with the blue cross (i.e. the peak voxel) are (from top left to bottom right):", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-29 01:47:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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