Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters
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{"title"=>"Pseudo-Synesthesia through reading books with colored letters", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Olympia", "last_name"=>"Colizoli", "scopus_author_id"=>"50860998800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jaap M.J.", "last_name"=>"Murre", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701757854"}, {"first_name"=>"Romke", "last_name"=>"Rouw", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603024841"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"22761905", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862996851", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0039799", "sgr"=>"84862996851", "pui"=>"365122007"}, "id"=>"a29c53a2-12ba-3095-9b49-6c3deea147d4", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training.\\n\\nCONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pseudosynesthesia-through-reading-books-colored-letters", "reader_count"=>86, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>47, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>47}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/617572/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars indicate standard error of the mean (<i>N</i> = 15). (A) Reaction times on congruent and incongruent trials, before and after participants had read the colored books. (B) Accuracy on congruent and incongruent trials, before and after participants had read the colored books.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stroop"], "article_id"=>288067, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Olympia Colizoli", "Jaap M. J. Murre", "Romke Rouw"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039799.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_The_Stroop_Effect_/288067", "title"=>"The Stroop Effect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:18:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/617639/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Participants indicated on a 5-pt Likert scale how much they agreed with the question: “I am experiencing color when thinking about certain letters”. This question is correlated with the Stroop effect: the difference between congruent and incongruent trials during a color naming task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stroop", "self-report"], "article_id"=>288132, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Olympia Colizoli", "Jaap M. J. Murre", "Romke Rouw"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039799.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_The_Stroop_effect_versus_self_report_rating_of_color_experience_/288132", "title"=>"The Stroop effect versus self-report rating of color experience.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:18:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/617696/Table_3.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Baseline letters were ‘D’, ‘F’, ‘O’ and ‘G’. Learned letters were ‘A’, ‘E’, ‘S’, and ‘T’. All stimuli were presented in black.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>288188, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Olympia Colizoli", "Jaap M. J. Murre", "Romke Rouw"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039799.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Crowding_task_accuracy_/288188", "title"=>"Crowding task accuracy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:18:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/617726/Table_2.xls"], "description"=>"<p>HF  =  high frequency letters (‘e’, ‘t’), LF  =  low frequency letters (‘a’, ‘s’). Participants rated their preferences on a 5-pt Likert scale for each of the four letters in each of the four colors: red, orange, green, blue. Participants were randomly split in two groups: Group 1 was assigned their preferred letter-color pairs to the HF condition and their non-preferred letter-color pairs to the LF condition. Group 2 was assigned their preferred letter-color pairs to the LF condition and their non-preferred letter-color pairs to the HF condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["letter-color"], "article_id"=>288217, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Olympia Colizoli", "Jaap M. J. Murre", "Romke Rouw"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039799.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Preference_for_letter_color_pairs_/288217", "title"=>"Preference for letter-color pairs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:19:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/617767/Table_1.xls"], "description"=>"<p>The character count does not include spaces. Stroop effect data reported here are from the lower-case letter condition after reading. Stroop RT is the difference in reaction times (ms) of incongruent and congruent trials. Stroop % is the difference in accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials. The number of times a participant read each letter is equal to the character count per participant multiplied by the relative letter frequency. Estimated relative letter frequencies are: ‘e’ = 12.07%, ‘t’ = 9.06%, ‘a’ = 8.17%, ‘s’ = 6.33%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stroop"], "article_id"=>288260, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Olympia Colizoli", "Jaap M. J. Murre", "Romke Rouw"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039799.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Amount_of_reading_and_Stroop_effects_/288260", "title"=>"Amount of reading and Stroop effects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:19:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[333, 576, 707, 814, 908, 1004, 1104, 1197, 1280, 1370, 1449, 1531, 1603, 1673, 1742, 1817, 1886, 1954, 2025, 2098, 2171, 2234, 2304, 2365, 2431]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[325, 542, 658, 757, 836, 925, 1015, 1095, 1177, 1263, 1338, 1411, 1477, 1537, 1599, 1663, 1726, 1795, 1857, 1921, 1979, 2041, 2099, 2150, 2205]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[330, 562, 680, 783, 875, 964, 1062, 1152, 1240, 1327, 1406, 1483, 1561, 1632, 1701, 1770, 1849, 1922, 1993, 2059, 2131, 2197, 2271, 2335, 2403]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[325, 565, 687, 787, 880, 971, 1065, 1156, 1244, 1339, 1424, 1502, 1582, 1654, 1724, 1794, 1855, 1925, 1997, 2058, 2132, 2207, 2285, 2347, 2412]}]}
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