Anticoagulant Rodenticides on our Public and Community Lands: Spatial Distribution of Exposure and Poisoning of a Rare Forest Carnivore
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{"title"=>"Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: Spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mourad W.", "last_name"=>"Gabriel", "scopus_author_id"=>"23027610400"}, {"first_name"=>"Leslie W.", "last_name"=>"Woods", "scopus_author_id"=>"16685333800"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Poppenga", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004658247"}, {"first_name"=>"Rick A.", "last_name"=>"Sweitzer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004098906"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig", "last_name"=>"Thompson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55455496300"}, {"first_name"=>"Sean M.", "last_name"=>"Matthews", "scopus_author_id"=>"20433914200"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Mark", "last_name"=>"Higley", "scopus_author_id"=>"14631869400"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan M.", "last_name"=>"Keller", "scopus_author_id"=>"8878255300"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathryn", "last_name"=>"Purcell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005478322"}, {"first_name"=>"Reginald H.", "last_name"=>"Barrett", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202350031"}, {"first_name"=>"Greta M.", "last_name"=>"Wengert", "scopus_author_id"=>"35313111400"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin N.", "last_name"=>"Sacks", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004432277"}, {"first_name"=>"de ana L.", "last_name"=>"Clifford", "scopus_author_id"=>"55311355100"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84863762124", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84863762124", "pmid"=>"22808110", "pui"=>"365232380", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0040163"}, "id"=>"82181f2d-d446-3dc7-b3d9-b240f87e3084", "abstract"=>"Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of non-target wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for fishers (Martes pennanti), a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act in the Pacific states. In an investigation of threats to fisher population persistence in the two isolated California populations, we investigate the magnitude of this previously undocumented threat to fishers, we tested 58 carcasses for the presence and quantification of ARs, conducted spatial analysis of exposed fishers in an effort to identify potential point sources of AR, and identified fishers that died directly due to AR poisoning. We found 46 of 58 (79%) fishers exposed to an AR with 96% of those individuals having been exposed to one or more second-generation AR compounds. No spatial clustering of AR exposure was detected and the spatial distribution of exposure suggests that AR contamination is widespread within the fisher's range in California, which encompasses mostly public forest and park lands Additionally, we diagnosed four fisher deaths, including a lactating female, that were directly attributed to AR toxicosis and documented the first neonatal or milk transfer of an AR to an altricial fisher kit. These ARs, which some are acutely toxic, pose both a direct mortality or fitness risk to fishers, and a significant indirect risk to these isolated populations. Future research should be directed towards investigating risks to prey populations fishers are dependent on, exposure in other rare forest carnivores, and potential AR point sources such as illegal marijuana cultivation in the range of fishers on California public lands.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/anticoagulant-rodenticides-public-community-lands-spatial-distribution-exposure-poisoning-rare-fores", "reader_count"=>163, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>31, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>31, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>86, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>42, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>42}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>86}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "United Arab Emirates"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/609714"], "description"=>"<p>Green circles represent negative fishers, yellow circles represent exposed fishers, while red circles are fishers that died due to AR toxicosis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anticoagulant", "rodenticides", "fishers", "california"], "article_id"=>280197, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exposure_to_and_mortality_from_anticoagulant_rodenticides_AR_in_fishers_Martes_pennanti_from_the_isolated_northern_California_population_/280197", "title"=>"Exposure to and mortality from anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) in fishers (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) from the isolated northern California population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:03:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/609326"], "description"=>"<p>Enlarged map of fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project area for the northern California population at the Hoopa Valley Reservation Fisher project (HVRFP).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fisher", "california", "hoopa"], "article_id"=>279814, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>339, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Enlarged_map_of_fisher_Martes_pennanti_project_area_for_the_northern_California_population_at_the_Hoopa_Valley_Reservation_Fisher_project_HVRFP_/279814", "title"=>"Enlarged map of fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project area for the northern California population at the Hoopa Valley Reservation Fisher project (HVRFP).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 02:43:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/611134"], "description"=>"<p>Mean number () of AR compounds detected per individual, range of numbers of AR per individual and standard deviation (SD) are given for all, female (F) and male (M) fishers for each population. Chi-square and heterogeneity Chi-square test analyzing exposure between the sexes both within and between the populations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anticoagulant", "rodenticides", "fishers", "california", "sierra"], "article_id"=>281607, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exposure_and_mortality_due_to_anticoagulant_rodenticides_AR_fishers_Martes_pennanti_within_the_two_isolated_populations_northern_California_and_southern_Sierra_Nevada_/281607", "title"=>"Exposure and mortality due to anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) fishers (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) within the two isolated populations, northern California and southern Sierra Nevada.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:26:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610015"], "description"=>"<p>Condition of the undisturbed mortality site in which a fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) mortality due to anticoagulant rodenticide from the southern Sierra Nevada population was found.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["undisturbed", "fisher", "anticoagulant", "rodenticide", "sierra", "nevada", "was"], "article_id"=>280488, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Condition_of_the_undisturbed_mortality_site_in_which_a_fisher_Martes_pennanti_mortality_due_to_anticoagulant_rodenticide_from_the_southern_Sierra_Nevada_population_was_found_/280488", "title"=>"Condition of the undisturbed mortality site in which a fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) mortality due to anticoagulant rodenticide from the southern Sierra Nevada population was found.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:08:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610499"], "description"=>"<p>One of several nine-pound buckets of anticoagulant rodenticide removed from an illegal northern California marijuana operation within the northwestern California fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project boundary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nine-pound", "buckets", "anticoagulant", "rodenticide", "removed", "california", "marijuana", "northwestern", "fisher"], "article_id"=>280973, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_One_of_several_nine_pound_buckets_of_anticoagulant_rodenticide_removed_from_an_illegal_northern_California_marijuana_operation_within_the_northwestern_California_fisher_Martes_pennanti_project_boundary_/280973", "title"=>"One of several nine-pound buckets of anticoagulant rodenticide removed from an illegal northern California marijuana operation within the northwestern California fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project boundary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:16:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/609228"], "description"=>"<p>Current range (shaded areas) of the two isolated California populations of fishers (<i>Martes pennanti</i>). Areas of fisher projects that generated data for exposure and mortality to anticoagulant rodenticides are outlined within the two isolated populations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["california"], "article_id"=>279709, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fisher_Martes_pennanti_current_range_in_California_and_project_areas_/279709", "title"=>"Fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) current range in California and project areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 02:41:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610973"], "description"=>"<p>Anticoagulant rodenticide bait pellets (bright green) with plant fertilizer freely dispersed around 2,000 plants from northern California marijuana grow site within the northwestern California fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project boundary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rodenticide", "bait", "pellets", "fertilizer", "dispersed", "plants", "california", "marijuana", "northwestern", "fisher"], "article_id"=>281446, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anticoagulant_rodenticide_bait_pellets_bright_green_with_plant_fertilizer_freely_dispersed_around_2_000_plants_from_northern_California_marijuana_grow_site_within_the_northwestern_California_fisher_Martes_pennanti_project_boundary_/281446", "title"=>"Anticoagulant rodenticide bait pellets (bright green) with plant fertilizer freely dispersed around 2,000 plants from northern California marijuana grow site within the northwestern California fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project boundary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:24:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/609640"], "description"=>"<p>Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) brodifacoum (BRD), bromodiolone (BRM), difethialone (DIF), chlorophacinone (CHL), diphacinone (DIP), warfarin (WAF) and coumachlor (COM) parts per million (PPM) levels detected in positive fishers (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) in California. Blue diamonds represent AR quantification levels (ppm). Red diamonds represent levels in fishers that died due to AR ingestion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "anticoagulant", "rodenticides", "california"], "article_id"=>280120, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_levels_of_anticoagulant_rodenticides_detected_in_California_fishers_/280120", "title"=>"Quantification levels of anticoagulant rodenticides detected in California fishers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/609485"], "description"=>"<p>Enlarged map of fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project areas for the southern Sierra Nevada population: the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project (SNAMP) and Kings River Fisher Project (KRFP).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fisher", "areas", "sierra", "nevada", "adaptive", "kings"], "article_id"=>279967, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Enlarged_map_of_fisher_Martes_pennanti_project_areas_for_the_southern_Sierra_Nevada_population_the_Sierra_Nevada_Adaptive_Management_Project_SNAMP_and_Kings_River_Fisher_Project_KRFP_/279967", "title"=>"Enlarged map of fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project areas for the southern Sierra Nevada population: the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project (SNAMP) and Kings River Fisher Project (KRFP).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 02:46:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610295"], "description"=>"<p>Thoracic cavity hemorrhaging containing 150 ml of frank blood due to coagulopathy after lethal exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in a fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) from the southern Sierra Nevada population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cavity", "hemorrhaging", "containing", "150", "ml", "frank", "coagulopathy", "lethal", "anticoagulant", "rodenticides", "fisher", "sierra", "nevada"], "article_id"=>280764, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>131, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thoracic_cavity_hemorrhaging_containing_150_ml_of_frank_blood_due_to_coagulopathy_after_lethal_exposure_to_anticoagulant_rodenticides_in_a_fisher_Martes_pennanti_from_the_southern_Sierra_Nevada_population_/280764", "title"=>"Thoracic cavity hemorrhaging containing 150 ml of frank blood due to coagulopathy after lethal exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in a fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) from the southern Sierra Nevada population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:12:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/609836"], "description"=>"<p>Green circles represent negative fishers, yellow circles represent exposed fishers, while red circles are fishers that died due to AR toxicosis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anticoagulant", "rodenticides", "fishers", "sierra", "nevada"], "article_id"=>280317, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exposure_to_and_mortality_from_anticoagulant_rodenticides_AR_in_fishers_Martes_pennanti_from_the_isolated_southern_Sierra_Nevada_population_/280317", "title"=>"Exposure to and mortality from anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) in fishers (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) from the isolated southern Sierra Nevada population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:05:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/318393", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/318445"], "description"=>"<div><p>Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of non-target wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for fishers (<em>Martes pennanti</em>), a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act in the Pacific states. In an investigation of threats to fisher population persistence in the two isolated California populations, we investigate the magnitude of this previously undocumented threat to fishers, we tested 58 carcasses for the presence and quantification of ARs, conducted spatial analysis of exposed fishers in an effort to identify potential point sources of AR, and identified fishers that died directly due to AR poisoning. We found 46 of 58 (79%) fishers exposed to an AR with 96% of those individuals having been exposed to one or more second-generation AR compounds. No spatial clustering of AR exposure was detected and the spatial distribution of exposure suggests that AR contamination is widespread within the fisher’s range in California, which encompasses mostly public forest and park lands Additionally, we diagnosed four fisher deaths, including a lactating female, that were directly attributed to AR toxicosis and documented the first neonatal or milk transfer of an AR to an altricial fisher kit. These ARs, which some are acutely toxic, pose both a direct mortality or fitness risk to fishers, and a significant indirect risk to these isolated populations. Future research should be directed towards investigating risks to prey populations fishers are dependent on, exposure in other rare forest carnivores, and potential AR point sources such as illegal marijuana cultivation in the range of fishers on California public lands.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anticoagulant", "rodenticides", "spatial", "poisoning", "carnivore"], "article_id"=>122846, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Anticoagulant_Rodenticides_on_our_Public_and_Community_Lands_Spatial_Distribution_of_Exposure_and_Poisoning_of_a_Rare_Forest_Carnivore/122846", "title"=>"Anticoagulant Rodenticides on our Public and Community Lands: Spatial Distribution of Exposure and Poisoning of a Rare Forest Carnivore", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:47:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610742"], "description"=>"<p>Multiple packets of anticoagulant rodenticides found surrounding an illegal marijuana grow site within the southern Sierra Nevada fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["packets", "anticoagulant", "rodenticides", "marijuana", "sierra", "nevada", "fisher"], "article_id"=>281215, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Mourad W. Gabriel", "Leslie W. Woods", "Robert Poppenga", "Rick A. Sweitzer", "Craig Thompson", "Sean M. Matthews", "J. Mark Higley", "Stefan M. Keller", "Kathryn Purcell", "Reginald H. Barrett", "Greta M. Wengert", "Benjamin N. Sacks", "Deana L. Clifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040163.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_packets_of_anticoagulant_rodenticides_found_surrounding_an_illegal_marijuana_grow_site_within_the_southern_Sierra_Nevada_fisher_Martes_pennanti_project_/281215", "title"=>"Multiple packets of anticoagulant rodenticides found surrounding an illegal marijuana grow site within the southern Sierra Nevada fisher (<i>Martes pennanti</i>) project.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-13 00:20:15"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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